A novel inverse association between cord 25-hydroxyvitamin D and leg length in boys up to three years: An Odense Child Cohort study

Mathilde Egelund Christensen*, Signe Sparre Beck-Nielsen, Christine Dalgård, Søs Dragsbæk Larsen, Sine Lykkedegn, Henriette Boye Kyhl, Steffen Husby, Henrik Thybo Christesen

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Background and aim Long standing vitamin D deficiency in children causes rickets with growth impairment. We investigated whether sub-ischial leg length (SLL) is shorter, and cephalo-caudal length: length (CCL:L) ratio and sitting height:height (SH:H) ratio larger, with lower cord s-25-hydro-xyvitamin D (25OHD) in the population-based prospective Odense Child Cohort, Denmark. Methods We included healthy singletons born to term with available measures of cord 25OHD and anthropometrics up to three years’ age. Linear regression was stratified by sex a priori and adjusted for maternal ethnicity, pre-pregnancy body mass index and smoking during pregnancy, season of blood sampling and child age. Results Median (IQR) cord 25OHD was 48.0 (34.0–62.4) nmol/L. At mean age 19.1 months, n = 504, mean (SD) SLL was 31.7 (1.7) cm; CCL:L-ratio 0.62 (0.01). At 36.3 months, n = 956, mean SLL was 42.9 (2.0) cm; SH:H-ratio 0.56 (0.01). No participants had rickets. In adjusted analyses, 19-months-old boys had 0.1 cm shorter SLL (p = 0.009) and 0.1% higher CCL:L-ratio (p = 0.04) with every 10 nmol/L increase in cord 25OHD. Similar findings were seen for late pregnancy 25OHD. In the highest cord 25OHD quartile (>60.7 nmol/L), SLL was 0.8 cm shorter (95% C.I.: 1.36;-0.29, linear trend, p = 0.004), and CCL:L-ratio 0.8% higher (95% C. I. 8.0x10 -05 ;0.01, linear trend, p = 0.01), compared to lowest quartile (<30.7 nmol/L). Similar associations with cord 25OHD were observed in 3-year-old boys. No consistent associations between 25OHD and anthropometrics were seen in girls at either age. Conclusion No leg shortening was found with decreasing cord s-25OHD in a healthy population of infants. A small, yet significant inverse association between cord 25OHD and SLL in boys 1½-3 years warrants further investigations.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0198724
JournalPLOS ONE
Volume13
Issue number6
Number of pages17
ISSN1932-6203
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1. Jun 2018

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cohort studies
Leg
legs
Cohort Studies
rickets
pregnancy
Denmark
25-hydroxyvitamin D
Population
Linear regression
Linear Models
Vitamin D
Body Mass Index
Smoking
Mothers
Blood
vitamin D deficiency
Sampling
smoking (food products)
blood sampling

Cite this

@article{c989fee277314b00b7338e87e1b5ffb8,
title = "A novel inverse association between cord 25-hydroxyvitamin D and leg length in boys up to three years: An Odense Child Cohort study",
abstract = "Background and aim Long standing vitamin D deficiency in children causes rickets with growth impairment. We investigated whether sub-ischial leg length (SLL) is shorter, and cephalo-caudal length: length (CCL:L) ratio and sitting height:height (SH:H) ratio larger, with lower cord s-25-hydro-xyvitamin D (25OHD) in the population-based prospective Odense Child Cohort, Denmark. Methods We included healthy singletons born to term with available measures of cord 25OHD and anthropometrics up to three years’ age. Linear regression was stratified by sex a priori and adjusted for maternal ethnicity, pre-pregnancy body mass index and smoking during pregnancy, season of blood sampling and child age. Results Median (IQR) cord 25OHD was 48.0 (34.0–62.4) nmol/L. At mean age 19.1 months, n = 504, mean (SD) SLL was 31.7 (1.7) cm; CCL:L-ratio 0.62 (0.01). At 36.3 months, n = 956, mean SLL was 42.9 (2.0) cm; SH:H-ratio 0.56 (0.01). No participants had rickets. In adjusted analyses, 19-months-old boys had 0.1 cm shorter SLL (p = 0.009) and 0.1{\%} higher CCL:L-ratio (p = 0.04) with every 10 nmol/L increase in cord 25OHD. Similar findings were seen for late pregnancy 25OHD. In the highest cord 25OHD quartile (>60.7 nmol/L), SLL was 0.8 cm shorter (95{\%} C.I.: 1.36;-0.29, linear trend, p = 0.004), and CCL:L-ratio 0.8{\%} higher (95{\%} C. I. 8.0x10 -05 ;0.01, linear trend, p = 0.01), compared to lowest quartile (<30.7 nmol/L). Similar associations with cord 25OHD were observed in 3-year-old boys. No consistent associations between 25OHD and anthropometrics were seen in girls at either age. Conclusion No leg shortening was found with decreasing cord s-25OHD in a healthy population of infants. A small, yet significant inverse association between cord 25OHD and SLL in boys 1½-3 years warrants further investigations.",
author = "Christensen, {Mathilde Egelund} and Beck-Nielsen, {Signe Sparre} and Christine Dalg{\aa}rd and Larsen, {S{\o}s Dragsb{\ae}k} and Sine Lykkedegn and Kyhl, {Henriette Boye} and Steffen Husby and Christesen, {Henrik Thybo}",
year = "2018",
month = "6",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0198724",
language = "English",
volume = "13",
journal = "P L o S One",
issn = "1932-6203",
publisher = "Public Library of Science",
number = "6",

}

A novel inverse association between cord 25-hydroxyvitamin D and leg length in boys up to three years : An Odense Child Cohort study. / Christensen, Mathilde Egelund; Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Dalgård, Christine; Larsen, Søs Dragsbæk; Lykkedegn, Sine; Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Husby, Steffen; Christesen, Henrik Thybo.

In: PLOS ONE, Vol. 13, No. 6, e0198724, 01.06.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - A novel inverse association between cord 25-hydroxyvitamin D and leg length in boys up to three years

T2 - An Odense Child Cohort study

AU - Christensen, Mathilde Egelund

AU - Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre

AU - Dalgård, Christine

AU - Larsen, Søs Dragsbæk

AU - Lykkedegn, Sine

AU - Kyhl, Henriette Boye

AU - Husby, Steffen

AU - Christesen, Henrik Thybo

PY - 2018/6/1

Y1 - 2018/6/1

N2 - Background and aim Long standing vitamin D deficiency in children causes rickets with growth impairment. We investigated whether sub-ischial leg length (SLL) is shorter, and cephalo-caudal length: length (CCL:L) ratio and sitting height:height (SH:H) ratio larger, with lower cord s-25-hydro-xyvitamin D (25OHD) in the population-based prospective Odense Child Cohort, Denmark. Methods We included healthy singletons born to term with available measures of cord 25OHD and anthropometrics up to three years’ age. Linear regression was stratified by sex a priori and adjusted for maternal ethnicity, pre-pregnancy body mass index and smoking during pregnancy, season of blood sampling and child age. Results Median (IQR) cord 25OHD was 48.0 (34.0–62.4) nmol/L. At mean age 19.1 months, n = 504, mean (SD) SLL was 31.7 (1.7) cm; CCL:L-ratio 0.62 (0.01). At 36.3 months, n = 956, mean SLL was 42.9 (2.0) cm; SH:H-ratio 0.56 (0.01). No participants had rickets. In adjusted analyses, 19-months-old boys had 0.1 cm shorter SLL (p = 0.009) and 0.1% higher CCL:L-ratio (p = 0.04) with every 10 nmol/L increase in cord 25OHD. Similar findings were seen for late pregnancy 25OHD. In the highest cord 25OHD quartile (>60.7 nmol/L), SLL was 0.8 cm shorter (95% C.I.: 1.36;-0.29, linear trend, p = 0.004), and CCL:L-ratio 0.8% higher (95% C. I. 8.0x10 -05 ;0.01, linear trend, p = 0.01), compared to lowest quartile (<30.7 nmol/L). Similar associations with cord 25OHD were observed in 3-year-old boys. No consistent associations between 25OHD and anthropometrics were seen in girls at either age. Conclusion No leg shortening was found with decreasing cord s-25OHD in a healthy population of infants. A small, yet significant inverse association between cord 25OHD and SLL in boys 1½-3 years warrants further investigations.

AB - Background and aim Long standing vitamin D deficiency in children causes rickets with growth impairment. We investigated whether sub-ischial leg length (SLL) is shorter, and cephalo-caudal length: length (CCL:L) ratio and sitting height:height (SH:H) ratio larger, with lower cord s-25-hydro-xyvitamin D (25OHD) in the population-based prospective Odense Child Cohort, Denmark. Methods We included healthy singletons born to term with available measures of cord 25OHD and anthropometrics up to three years’ age. Linear regression was stratified by sex a priori and adjusted for maternal ethnicity, pre-pregnancy body mass index and smoking during pregnancy, season of blood sampling and child age. Results Median (IQR) cord 25OHD was 48.0 (34.0–62.4) nmol/L. At mean age 19.1 months, n = 504, mean (SD) SLL was 31.7 (1.7) cm; CCL:L-ratio 0.62 (0.01). At 36.3 months, n = 956, mean SLL was 42.9 (2.0) cm; SH:H-ratio 0.56 (0.01). No participants had rickets. In adjusted analyses, 19-months-old boys had 0.1 cm shorter SLL (p = 0.009) and 0.1% higher CCL:L-ratio (p = 0.04) with every 10 nmol/L increase in cord 25OHD. Similar findings were seen for late pregnancy 25OHD. In the highest cord 25OHD quartile (>60.7 nmol/L), SLL was 0.8 cm shorter (95% C.I.: 1.36;-0.29, linear trend, p = 0.004), and CCL:L-ratio 0.8% higher (95% C. I. 8.0x10 -05 ;0.01, linear trend, p = 0.01), compared to lowest quartile (<30.7 nmol/L). Similar associations with cord 25OHD were observed in 3-year-old boys. No consistent associations between 25OHD and anthropometrics were seen in girls at either age. Conclusion No leg shortening was found with decreasing cord s-25OHD in a healthy population of infants. A small, yet significant inverse association between cord 25OHD and SLL in boys 1½-3 years warrants further investigations.

U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0198724

DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0198724

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 29889866

VL - 13

JO - P L o S One

JF - P L o S One

SN - 1932-6203

IS - 6

M1 - e0198724

ER -