A Meta-study of musicians' non-verbal interaction

Emanuela Marchetti, Kristoffer Jensen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsResearchpeer-review


Music can be seen as a social skilled practice, since the creation of good music is the result of a group effort. According to current literature, communication through non-verbal cues is an important factor in securing a good performance, since it allows musicians to correct each other without interruptions. Hence, despite the fact that the skill to engage in a non-verbal interaction is described as tacit knowledge, it is fundamental for both musicians and teachers (Davidson and Good 2002). Typical observed non-verbal cues are for example: physical gestures, modulations of sound, steady eye contact, and facial expressions (Levasseur 1994, Kurkul 1997). This meta-study proposes to investigate musicians’ interaction using the Belief-Desire-Intention model (Bratman 1999) that has been used in software development of planning agents (Rao and Georgeff 1995). According to Bratman, as planning agents, we act intentionally, and we form and execute (partial) plans. Future-directed intentions are further reconsidered according to the reduced set of desires and beliefs. In the BDI sense musicians interact to execute their plan, originated for instance by the desire to play good music, the belief of knowing how the music should be played and the intention to communicate through non-verbal interaction, which allows them to achieve their desire and improve the performance on-the-fly. The BDI model has proven useful in synthesising information and it is believed that this scientific-rational model will bring benefits in analysing a tacit practice.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceeding of the 6th International Conference on Technology, Knowledge and Society
Number of pages1
Publication date2010
Publication statusPublished - 2010
Externally publishedYes
Event6th International Conference on Technology, Knowledge and Society - Free University Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Duration: 15. Jan 201017. Jan 2010


Conference6th International Conference on Technology, Knowledge and Society
LocationFree University Berlin
Internet address


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