A low-gluten diet induces changes in the intestinal microbiome of healthy Danish adults

Lea B S Hansen, Henrik M Roager, Nadja B Søndertoft, Rikke J Gøbel, Mette Kristensen, Mireia Vallès-Colomer, Sara Vieira-Silva, Sabine Ibrügger, Mads V Lind, Rasmus B Mærkedahl, Martin I Bahl, Mia L Madsen, Jesper Havelund, Gwen Falony, Inge Tetens, Trine Nielsen, Kristine H Allin, Henrik L Frandsen, Bolette Hartmann, Jens Juul HolstMorten H Sparholt, Jesper Holck, Andreas Blennow, Janne Marie Moll, Anne S Meyer, Camilla Hoppe, Jørgen H Poulsen, Vera Carvalho, Domenico Sagnelli, Marlene D Dalgaard, Anders F Christensen, Magnus Christian Lydolph, Alastair B Ross, Silas Villas-Bôas, Susanne Brix, Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén, Karsten Buschard, Allan Linneberg, Jüri J Rumessen, Claus T Ekstrøm, Christian Ritz, Karsten Kristiansen, H Bjørn Nielsen, Henrik Vestergaard, Nils J Færgeman, Jeroen Raes, Hanne Frøkiær, Torben Hansen, Lotte Lauritzen, Ramneek Gupta, Tine Rask Licht, Oluf Pedersen

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Adherence to a low-gluten diet has become increasingly common in parts of the general population. However, the effects of reducing gluten-rich food items including wheat, barley and rye cereals in healthy adults are unclear. Here, we undertook a randomised, controlled, cross-over trial involving 60 middle-aged Danish adults without known disorders with two 8-week interventions comparing a low-gluten diet (2 g gluten per day) and a high-gluten diet (18 g gluten per day), separated by a washout period of at least six weeks with habitual diet (12 g gluten per day). We find that, in comparison with a high-gluten diet, a low-gluten diet induces moderate changes in the intestinal microbiome, reduces fasting and postprandial hydrogen exhalation, and leads to improvements in self-reported bloating. These observations suggest that most of the effects of a low-gluten diet in non-coeliac adults may be driven by qualitative changes in dietary fibres.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4630
JournalNature Communications
Number of pages13
Publication statusPublished - 13. Nov 2018


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