A Generalized Model for the Optimal Operation of Microgrids in Grid-Connected and Islanded Droop-Based Mode

Pedro P. Vergara*, Juan M. Rey, Juan C. Lopez, Marcos J. Rider, Luiz C.P. da Silva, Hamid R. Shaker, Bo N. Jorgensen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

In this paper, a new and generalized model for the optimal operation of microgrids is presented. The proposed mathematical model considers both operational modes, either grid-connected (GC) and islanded (IS) modes. First, a mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) formulation is introduced, modeling the microgrid as an unbalanced ac three-phase electrical distribution system (EDS), comprising distributed generator (DG) units, battery systems (BSs) and wind turbines (WTs). In GC mode, the frequency and the voltage magnitude references are imposed by the main grid at the point of common couple (PCC), while in IS mode, it is assumed that the DG units operate with droop control. Additionally, a set of convexification procedures are introduced in order to approximate the original MINLP model into a new convex formulation that can be solved using commercial solvers. The proposed model has been tested in a 25-bus microgrid for different scenarios, including one where a degradation of the voltage magnitude reference is observed. Results shows that the proposed model is able to properly define the operational mode of the microgrid, based on the technical constraints of the system.

Original languageEnglish
JournalI E E E Transactions on Smart Grid
Volume10
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)5032-5045
ISSN1949-3053
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2019

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Nonlinear programming
Electric potential
Wind turbines
Mathematical models
Degradation

Keywords

  • convex optimization
  • droop control
  • Energy storage
  • Frequency control
  • grid-connected operation
  • islanded operation
  • Mathematical model
  • Microgrids
  • optimal power flow.
  • Planning
  • Reactive power
  • Voltage control

Cite this

Vergara, Pedro P. ; Rey, Juan M. ; Lopez, Juan C. ; Rider, Marcos J. ; da Silva, Luiz C.P. ; Shaker, Hamid R. ; Jorgensen, Bo N. / A Generalized Model for the Optimal Operation of Microgrids in Grid-Connected and Islanded Droop-Based Mode. In: I E E E Transactions on Smart Grid. 2019 ; Vol. 10, No. 5. pp. 5032-5045.
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abstract = "In this paper, a new and generalized model for the optimal operation of microgrids is presented. The proposed mathematical model considers both operational modes, either grid-connected (GC) and islanded (IS) modes. First, a mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) formulation is introduced, modeling the microgrid as an unbalanced ac three-phase electrical distribution system (EDS), comprising distributed generator (DG) units, battery systems (BSs) and wind turbines (WTs). In GC mode, the frequency and the voltage magnitude references are imposed by the main grid at the point of common couple (PCC), while in IS mode, it is assumed that the DG units operate with droop control. Additionally, a set of convexification procedures are introduced in order to approximate the original MINLP model into a new convex formulation that can be solved using commercial solvers. The proposed model has been tested in a 25-bus microgrid for different scenarios, including one where a degradation of the voltage magnitude reference is observed. Results shows that the proposed model is able to properly define the operational mode of the microgrid, based on the technical constraints of the system.",
keywords = "convex optimization, droop control, Energy storage, Frequency control, grid-connected operation, islanded operation, Mathematical model, Microgrids, optimal power flow., Planning, Reactive power, Voltage control",
author = "Vergara, {Pedro P.} and Rey, {Juan M.} and Lopez, {Juan C.} and Rider, {Marcos J.} and {da Silva}, {Luiz C.P.} and Shaker, {Hamid R.} and Jorgensen, {Bo N.}",
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A Generalized Model for the Optimal Operation of Microgrids in Grid-Connected and Islanded Droop-Based Mode. / Vergara, Pedro P.; Rey, Juan M.; Lopez, Juan C.; Rider, Marcos J.; da Silva, Luiz C.P.; Shaker, Hamid R.; Jorgensen, Bo N.

In: I E E E Transactions on Smart Grid, Vol. 10, No. 5, 09.2019, p. 5032-5045.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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T1 - A Generalized Model for the Optimal Operation of Microgrids in Grid-Connected and Islanded Droop-Based Mode

AU - Vergara, Pedro P.

AU - Rey, Juan M.

AU - Lopez, Juan C.

AU - Rider, Marcos J.

AU - da Silva, Luiz C.P.

AU - Shaker, Hamid R.

AU - Jorgensen, Bo N.

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N2 - In this paper, a new and generalized model for the optimal operation of microgrids is presented. The proposed mathematical model considers both operational modes, either grid-connected (GC) and islanded (IS) modes. First, a mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) formulation is introduced, modeling the microgrid as an unbalanced ac three-phase electrical distribution system (EDS), comprising distributed generator (DG) units, battery systems (BSs) and wind turbines (WTs). In GC mode, the frequency and the voltage magnitude references are imposed by the main grid at the point of common couple (PCC), while in IS mode, it is assumed that the DG units operate with droop control. Additionally, a set of convexification procedures are introduced in order to approximate the original MINLP model into a new convex formulation that can be solved using commercial solvers. The proposed model has been tested in a 25-bus microgrid for different scenarios, including one where a degradation of the voltage magnitude reference is observed. Results shows that the proposed model is able to properly define the operational mode of the microgrid, based on the technical constraints of the system.

AB - In this paper, a new and generalized model for the optimal operation of microgrids is presented. The proposed mathematical model considers both operational modes, either grid-connected (GC) and islanded (IS) modes. First, a mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) formulation is introduced, modeling the microgrid as an unbalanced ac three-phase electrical distribution system (EDS), comprising distributed generator (DG) units, battery systems (BSs) and wind turbines (WTs). In GC mode, the frequency and the voltage magnitude references are imposed by the main grid at the point of common couple (PCC), while in IS mode, it is assumed that the DG units operate with droop control. Additionally, a set of convexification procedures are introduced in order to approximate the original MINLP model into a new convex formulation that can be solved using commercial solvers. The proposed model has been tested in a 25-bus microgrid for different scenarios, including one where a degradation of the voltage magnitude reference is observed. Results shows that the proposed model is able to properly define the operational mode of the microgrid, based on the technical constraints of the system.

KW - convex optimization

KW - droop control

KW - Energy storage

KW - Frequency control

KW - grid-connected operation

KW - islanded operation

KW - Mathematical model

KW - Microgrids

KW - optimal power flow.

KW - Planning

KW - Reactive power

KW - Voltage control

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