3D-printed heart phantoms for automatic measurement of left ventricular volume

Martin Weber Kusk*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to conference without publisher/journalConference abstract for conferenceResearchpeer-review


To develop cheap and accurate 3D printed heart phantoms from clinical CT data, in sufficient detail to facilitate automated measurements of left ventricular volumes, based on anatomical landmarks. If succesful, such phantoms could be used to explore dose reduction potential in CT-based ejection fraction measurement.
Methods or Background

Two high-dose cardiac CT-series from the same patient (1 systolic and 1 diastolic) were obtained from PACS. Active contours technique was used in ITK-snap to segment myocardium, vessels and ventricles. STL-files were exported and 3D-printed using an FDM 3D-printer. Printing material was selected based on literature, to target enhancing myocardium HU values. Cavities were filled with a mix of gelatine and contrast media, targeting 400 HU at 120 kVp. The models were placed inside an anthropomorphic lung phantom and scanned at different kVP and mAs values, using synthetic ECG. Volume measurement was done using Syngo.via Cardiac Function (Siemens Healthineers).
Results or Findings

At all parameter combinations, the clinical software was able to automically detect the mitral and aortic valve planes and delineate the LV cavity. Hounsfield values of phantom myocardium corresponded to live enhancing myocardium. Measured phantom LV volumes in both systolic and diastolic phases differed less than 5% from the clinical source scans. Costs were 350 for the printer and under 40 Euro in materials per phantom.

Cardiac cavities and myocardium HU values can be accurately reproduced, using cheap 3D-printing technique, making phantom studies feasible.

K-edge effects on enhancing myocardium could not be simulated. Right-sided hear chambers were not modelled. Movement artefact influence could not be quantified.
Ethics committee approval

Not applicable
Funding for this study

The study was supported by a research grant from the Danish Radiographers' Association ("Radiograf Rådet") and Karola Jørgensen Research fund at the hospital of Soutwest Jutland.
Original languageEnglish
Publication date15. Jul 2022
Publication statusPublished - 15. Jul 2022
EventEuropean Congress of Radiology - Supersonic Symposium, Vienna, Austria
Duration: 2. Mar 2016 → …


ConferenceEuropean Congress of Radiology
LocationSupersonic Symposium
Period02/03/2016 → …

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