"11 for Health i Danmark" - hvad motiverer børn i dette 11 ugers skolebaserede fodbold koncept?

Research output: ThesisPh.D. thesis

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Background: Numerous children worldwide are insufficiently physically active, and only 26% ofDanish schoolchildren between the ages of 11 and 15 years meet the national guidelines forphysical activity (PA) levels. So, there is an urgent need to consider ways to increase PA levels inschoolchildren. The “11 for Health in Denmark” programme (henceforward “the program”) aims toenhance 10–12-year-old schoolchildren’s PA levels and health knowledge through an 11-weekfootball intervention as part of physical education (PE) classes. The program is implemented andtaught by teachers within Danish schools and has been shown to induce positive effects forschoolchildren in areas such as physical fitness, cognitive performance, well-being, enjoyment andhealth knowledge. However, little is known about the implementation facilitation and themotivational processes within the program.The aim of this PhD project was therefore to investigate the implementation facilitation and themotivational processes within the program. The three objectives were 1) to gain a deeperunderstanding of the implementation facilitation of the program; 2) to achieve equivalence andcontent validity of a web-based Danish translation of a motivational questionnaire battery; and 3) touse this questionnaire battery to examine the processes by which 10-12-year-old schoolchildren’sperceived autonomy support by their teacher and autonomous motivation related to autonomousmotivation, beliefs, intention, and behavior, as well as investigating if the program increasesintentions to participate in physical activity (PA) outside school.

Methods: A fixed mixed-method approach was used within this thesis comprising three studies: acase study using a qualitative and descriptive approach during 11-weeks of observations, a crosscultural adaptation study comprising two rounds of cognitive debriefing interviews, and a five-weekprospective questionnaire study with the participants completing a motivational questionnairebattery at three time-points (weeks 0, 1 and 5) while participating in the program. In the threestudies data were derived from multiple school situations using photographs and videos,observations, informal interviews, cognitive debriefing interviews, and web-based questionnaires.Within the case study the participants were a Danish 5th-grade school class comprising 22schoolchildren (12 boys and 10 girls, Mage 11.86 ±) and one teacher. Within the cross-culturaladaptation study the participants were two Danish 5th-grade school classes (nine boys and six girls,Mage = 11.65). Within the prospective questionnaire study the participants were Danish speaking 5th-grade schoolchildren (N = 276 (boys, 50.4%); Mage = 10.44 SD = .35) from three schools andseven classes.

Results: Within the case study, we examined and identified five factors influencing theimplementation facilitation of the program: 1) environmental and organisational factors; 2)familiarisation with the concept for the teacher and schoolchildren; 3) previous clique formation; 4)the central role of the teacher; and 5) importance of how praise partners are allocated. The resultsrevealed high adherence to the program due to a motivational style of teaching. Nevertheless, therewere challenges during the implementation, as familiarisation with the program was needed. Apreviously existing group of football-playing boys were experienced as challenging for the teacherand the other schoolchildren due to their competitiveness. This competitiveness was at times foundto build barriers to other schoolchildren without football experience, potentially leading to a morecontrolled form of motivation.The cross-cultural adaptation study supported the content validity of the translated Danish webbased motivational questionnaire battery and the ability to measure the processes by whichschoolchildren’s autonomous motivation towards in-school PA relates to autonomous motivation,intentions and participation in relation to similar activities outside school. Four themes wereidentified: 1) considerations to be taken into account in creating the web-based questionnairebattery; 2) adjustment needed when translating the questionnaire battery; 3) required personalinformation; and 4) response categories. Furthermore, prominent problems were solved within theintroduction in all three parts of the questionnaire battery and the need for using a targeteddescription of the program was illustrated. Lexical problems were identified and solved in 23 out of57 questions, of which one question contained a prominent problem in which a definition of a wordwas needed and 22 questions contained minor problems regarding word adjustment. Lastly,prominent problems occurred when the schoolchildren had to provide personal information, and inrelation to computational problems in the response categories.The results from the five-week prospective questionnaire study suggested adequate model fit: χ2(df)= 75.811(26); p < .01, CFI = 0.911, TLI = 0.776, RMSEA = .083 (90% CI 0.062-0.105), SRMR =0.089. The results partly supported a mediation sequence, as we found significant direct effects in 8of 13 motivational variables (β = -.25-.83, p < .05), indirect effects in 1 of 9 variables (β = .15, pbetween Danish schoolchildren’s autonomous and controlled motivation from in school to out ofschool, and may inform future interventions promoting motivation and participation in out of schoolPA.

Conclusion: When investigating the implementation facilitation, it can be concluded thatimplementing a physical intervention concept like the program can be a complex and challengingtask in which several aspects are necessary to consider. It is not “one size fits all” and whenimplementing the program it is, among others, necessary to consider the internalization processesfor both teachers and children. More specifically it can be concluded that an autonomy-supportivestyle of teaching and the way of applying the praise partner concept can be considered a keyelement when implementing the program. However, it can also be concluded that a general need tofamiliarize themselves with games and drills was necessary and a differentiated focus on winninggames and not always focusing on involvement, high rate of success and enjoyment wasoccasionally challenging. When looking into investigating the motivational processes it can beconcluded that conceptual, item, semantic and operational equivalence was achieved, and thatresults support the content validity of the translated Danish web-based motivational questionnairebattery, and the ability to measure the processes by which schoolchildren’s autonomous motivationtowards in-school PA relates to autonomous motivation, intentions and participation in similaractivities outside school. Findings provide evidence for a motivational link between Danishschoolchildren’s autonomous motivation for leisure-time PA through the program, which may beused to inform future interventions promoting motivation and participation in PA. Nevertheless,motivational processes are complex and based on the results we cannot conclude that the programcan promote PA behavior
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • University of Southern Denmark
  • Krustrup, Peter, Principal supervisor
  • Elbe, Anne-Marie, Co-supervisor, External person
  • Hansen, Tina Grubbe, Co-supervisor
  • Larsen, Carsten Hvid, Co-supervisor
Publication statusPublished - 25. Nov 2022


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