Graham Butler

Full Professor of Law, B.A., LL.M., Ph.D.

Personal profile

Research interests

Professor Graham Butler (B.A., LL.M., Ph.D.) is Full Professor of Law at the University of Southern Denmark.

His research and scholarship focuses on various aspects of European Union law (public law), including EU constitutional law, EU internal market law, EU external relations law, as well as EU administrative law, and EU procedural law.

Professor Butler is a renowned academic known for his work in European law, and is one of the most frequently cited authors by the Advocates General of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) in their judicial opinions.

He has been named ‘DFF Sapere Aude Research Leader’ by Danmarks Frie Forskningsfond (the Independent Research Fund Denmark) for his writings in EU law. 

Professor Butler is the author/editor of several books, including:

  • Nordic Cooperation and the European Union: 50 Years of Legal Integration (Oxford: Hart Publishing/Bloomsbury, 2025) (ed, w/ Helle Krunke), 
  • Research Handbook on EEA Internal Market Law (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2024), 
  • The EU Law of Investment: Past, Present, and Future (Oxford: Hart Publishing/Bloomsbury, 2023) (ed, w/ Xavier Groussot & Marja-Liisa Öberg), 
  • EU Internal Market Law (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2023),
  • Shaping EU Law the British Way: UK Advocates General at the Court of Justice of the European Union (Oxford: Hart Publishing/Bloomsbury, 2022) (ed, w/ Adam Lazowski), 
  • EU External Relations Law: The Cases in Context (Oxford: Hart Publishing/Bloomsbury, 2022) (ed, w/ Ramses A. Wessel),
  • Constitutional Law of the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (Oxford: Hart Publishing/Bloomsbury, 2019). 

He is the author of provisions regarding the legal dimension of the EU's internal market in Oxford Principles of European Union Law (Oxford University Press) on the free movement of capital, as well as the Oxford Encyclopedia of EU Law (Oxford University Press) on state monopolies of a commercial character. 

Professor Butler is a member of the editorial board of EU-ret og Menneskeret (EU Law and Human Rights), the leading Danish journal in EU law published by Djøf Forlag, and is a member of the board of Dansk Selskab for Europaforskning (DSE) (the Danish Association for European Studies). 

His research has been published in all the leading academic law reviews and journals in European law, including the Common Market Law ReviewEuropean Law ReviewEuropean Constitutional Law ReviewEuropean Law JournalEuropean Public LawMaastricht Journal of European and Comparative LawEuropean Foreign Affairs ReviewEuropean Business Law Review, the Cambridge Yearbook of European Legal Studies, the Yearbook of European LawLegal Issues of Economic Integration, the Columbia Journal of European LawFordham International Law Journal, European Labour Law Journal, the Oxford Encyclopedia of EU LawNordic Journal of International Law, the Journal of International Dispute Settlement, the Journal of International and Comparative Law, the Journal of European Public Policy, the Nordic Journal of European LawInternational Organizations Law Review, the Irish Jurist, the Journal of International Banking Law and Regulation, the International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations, the Dublin University Law Journal, the Max Planck Encyclopedia of Comparative Constitutional Law, amongst others. He has also contributed to several edited volumes and collections published by Oxford University PressCambridge University PressHart PublishingBloomsburyEdward Elgar PublishingRoutledgeIntersentia, and more. 

Professor Butler holds a number of academic degrees from University College Dublin (UCD), National University of Ireland (NUI); the University of Iceland (Háskóli Íslands); and the University of Copenhagen (Københavns Universitet), Denmark. 

He has delivered invited lectures, seminars, and speeches at Europe’s leading universities, public bodies, international organisations, and interest groups. These have been in, inter alia, Austria (University of Salzburg), Belgium (KU Leuven), Cyprus (University of Nicosia), Czech Republic (Charles University, Prague), Denmark (Aarhus University; Copenhagen Business School; Danish Military Intelligence Agency/Forsvarets Efterretningstjeneste; Danish Parliament/Folketinget; Minstry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark/Udenrigsministeriet; Roskilde University; University of Copenhagen), Finland (University of Helsinki), France (Sciences Po, Paris; University of Nantes), Germany (European Central Bank, Frankfurt), Iceland (University of Iceland, Reykjavík), Italy (LUISS, RomeUniversità Cattolica del Sacro Cuore/Catholic University of MilanUniversity of Pisa), Ireland (Dublin City University; Maynooth University; National University of Ireland; Royal Irish Academy; University College Cork; University College Dublin), Luxembourg (University of Luxembourg, Kirchberg), the Netherlands (Maastricht University; University of Groningen), Norway (University of Bergen; University of Oslo), Spain (University of Salamanca), Sweden (Jönköping University; Lund University; Karlstad University; Stockholm University; Umeå University; University of Gothenburg; Uppsala University; Örebro University), and the United Kingdom (City, University of London; Newcastle University; Queen Mary, University of London; University of Aberdeen; University of Edinburgh; University of Westminster). 

Professor Butler was a member of the Investigation on developments in the EU and Europe in the field of security and defense policy, and implications for Denmark (Udredning om udviklingen i EU og Europa på det sikkerheds- og forsvarspolitiske område og betydningen for Danmark) (2018-2019), commissioned and appointed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark (Udenrigsministeriet); and was awarded a fellowship within the legal research programme by the European Central Bank (ECB) relating to the independence of national entities and bodies and the Integrity of the EU banking and financial system.  

Professor Butler's research has been cited in numerous cases at the Court of Justice of the European Union, including:

  • Opinion of Advocate General Eleanor Sharpston in Case C-670/16, Tsegezab Mengesteab v Federal Republic of Germany (Grand Chamber), 2017, concerning the EU’s Area of Freedom, Security, and Justice (Justice and Home Affairs).

  • Opinion of Advocate General Michal Bobek in Case C-418/18 P, Puppinck and Others v European Commission (Grand Chamber), 2019, concerning, inter alia, the European Citizens’ Initiative (ECI), EU institutional law, scope of executive discretion, standards of judicial review, and EU procedural law – an appeal of a judgment of the EU General Court in Case T-561/14, One of Us and Others v Commission.

  • Opinion of Advocate General Evgeni Tanchev in Case C-730/18 P, SC v Eulex Kosovo (First Chamber), 2020, concerning, inter alia, the scope of the arbitration clause under Article 272 TFEU, the EU’s contractual relations, and the jurisdiction of the Court in the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) – an appeal of a judgment of the EU General Court in Case T-242/17, SC v Eulex Kosovo.

  • Opinion of Advocate General Gerard Hogan in Case C-134/19 P, Bank Refah Kargaran v Council of the European Union (Grand Chamber), 2020, concerning, inter alia, jurisdiction of the Court in actions for damages, restrictive measures (sanctions), and the legal aspects of the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) – an appeal of a judgment of the EU General Court in Case T-552/15, Bank Refah Kargaran v Council of the European Union.

  • Opinion of Advocate General Evgeni Tanchev in Case C-283/20, CO, ME, GC and 42 Others v MJ (Head of Mission), European Commission, European External Action Service (EEAS), Council of the European Union, Eulex Kosovo (Fifth Chamber), 2021, concerning, inter alia, jurisdiction of the Court, the EU’s contractual relations, and the attribution of liability of EU missions. 

  • Opinion of Advocate General Priit Pikamäe in Case C-121/21, Czech Republic v Poland (Turów Mine) (Grand Chamber), 2022, concerning inter alia, inter-state cases and the jurisdiction of the Court, cross-border effects of economic activities, enforcement measures, environmental impact assessments, and environmental law. 

  • Opinion of Advocate General Jean Richard de la Tour in Case C‑46/22 P, Jenkinson v Council, Commission, European External Action Services and others (First Chamber), 2023, concerning, inter alia, judicial review powers of the General Court, EU contractual relations, the arbitration clause, and actions for annulment.

  • Opinion of Advocate General Nicholas Emiliou in Case C‑516/22, European Commission v United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Judgment of the UK Supreme Court) (Fifth Chamber), 2023, concerning, inter alia, state liability for breaches of EU law by national courts, former EU Member States, national courts and tribunals adjudicating at last instance, international agreements between Member States and third countries concluded before the date of their accession to the EU, multilateral treaties, the reference for a preliminary ruling procedure, transition period, and the EU-UK withdrawal agreement.

  • Opinion of Advocate General Tamara Ćapeta in Joined Cases C‑29/22 P and C‑44/22 P, KS, KD v Council of the European Union, European Commission, and European External Action Service (EEAS), and European Commission v KS, KD, Council of the European Union, and European External Action Service (EEAS), (Grand Chamber) (2023) concerning, inter alia, non-contractual liability of the European Union, breaches of fundamental rights, jurisdiction of the Court, and judicial remedies within the EU legal order. 

  • Opinion of Advocate General Maciej Szpunar in Case C‑236/23, Mutuelle assurance des travailleurs mutualistes (Matmut) v TN, Société MAAF assurances, Fonds de garantie des assurances obligatoires de dommages (FGAO), PQ, (First Chamber) (2024) concerning, inter alia, abuse of law, abuse of rights, insurance against civil liability in respect of motor vehicles, road traffic accidents, reimbursements, contract law, law of obligations, and insurance law.

 

Further information

Academic positions

  • Full Professor of Law, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark (2023-).

  • Positive assessment (Qualified) to be Full Professor of Law (2022).

  • Associate Professor of Law, Aarhus University, Denmark (2018-2023).

  • Assistant Professor of Law, Aarhus University, Denmark (2017-2018).

  • Stagiaire, Cabinet of Judge, Court of Justice of the European Union, Luxemburg (2016).

  • Ph.D. Fellow, Faculty of Law, University of Copenhagen, Denmark (2013-2016).

  • Parliamentary Assistant, Chairman of Joint Oireachtas Committee, Dáil Éireann, Houses of the Oireachtas (national parliament), Dublin, Ireland (2012-2013).

Visiting appointments

  • Visiting Professor of Law (Gästprofessor), Faculty of Social Sciences (Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap), Linnaeus University (Linnéuniversitet), Växjö, Sweden (2023-).

  • Visiting Associate/Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law (Det Juridisk Fakultet), University of Copenhagen (Københavns Universitet), Copenhagen, Denmark (2017-2021).

Expert and public appointments

  • Expert, NATO's innovation accelerator advancing compelling deep tech with dual-use solutions, Defence Innovation Accelerator for the North Atlantic (DIANA), North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Brussels, Belgium (2024-).

  • Member, Examiners Body for Accredited Education Programmes at the Royal Danish Defence College (Forsvarsakademiets Censorkorps for Forsvarets akkrediterede uddannelser i Danmark).

    • Appointed by the Royal Danish Defence College, under the authority of the Defence Command (Forsvarskommando), Danish Armed Forces (Forsvaret), Ministry of Defence of Denmark (Forsvarsministeriet) (2024-2027). 

  • Member, Examiners Body for Legal Education in Denmark (Medlam af Censorkorpset for Jurauddannelsen i Danmark).

    • Appointed by the Agency for Education and Research (Uddannelses- og Forskningsstyrelsen), Ministry for Education and Research of Denmark (Uddannelses- og Forskningsministeriet), Copenhagen, Denmark (2022-2026).

  • Commissioned report on certain aspects of the regulation of alcoholic goods in Sweden and the arising issues under EU law.

    • Appointed by an independent government agency, the Swedish Institute for European Policy Studies (Svenska institutet för europapolitiska studier), Stockholm, Sweden (2021-2022).

  • Member, Legal Research Programme, European Central Bank (ECB).

    • Appointed by the Directorate General Legal Services, ECB, Frankfurt, Germany (2022).

  • Member of the Investigation (Udredning) on developments in the EU and Europe in the field of security and defense policy, and implications for Denmark (Udredning om udviklingen i EU og Europa på det sikkerheds- og forsvarspolitiske område og betydningen for Danmark) in light of the Denmark's defence-opt-out,

    • Appointed and commissioned by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark (Udenrigsministeriet), Copenhagen, Denmark (2018-2019).

Academic education and qualifications

  • Positive assessment (Qualified) to be Full Professor of Law (2022).

  • Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy), Faculty of Law, University of Copenhagen, Denmark (2016). 

  • Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy), Faculty of Law, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland (2016).

  • LL.M. (Master of Laws), School of Law, University College Dublin, National University of Ireland, Dublin, Ireland (2013).

Further education

  • Educational IT for Associate Professors and Professors, Centre for Educational Development (CED), Aarhus University, Denmark (2020-2021).

  • Master’s and PhD Supervision for Associate Professors and Professors, Centre for Teaching and Learning (Center for Undervisning og Læring), Aarhus University, Denmark (2019-2020).

  • Teacher Training Programme for Assistant Professors (Adjunktpædagogikum), Centre for Teaching and Learning (Center for Undervisning og Læring), Aarhus University, Denmark (2017-2018).

  • Academy of European Law, Department of Law, European University Institute (EUI), Fiesole, Florence, Italy (2014).

  • Centre for the Law of EU External Relations (CLEER) Summer School, TMC Asser Institute and Maastricht University (Campus Brussels), Brussels, Belgium (2014).

Research areas (general)

  • European Union law.

  • EU constitutional law.

  • EU internal market law.

  • EU economic law.

  • EU security law. 

  • EU external relations law.

  • EU state aid law. 

  • EU fundamental rights. 

  • EU procedural law.

  • EU institutional law.

  • EU administrative law.

Further research areas (specialised)

  • Free movement of goods. 
  • Free movement of workers. 

  • Free movement of capital. 
  • Nordic cooperation.

  • European Economic Area (EEA) law. 
  • Micro-states of Europe. 

  • The EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. 
  • Restrictive measures (sanctions). 

  • Judicial independence. 

  • State monopolies of a commercial character. 

  • International civil service law.

  • Privileges and immunities. 

  • International administrative tribunals. 

Teaching areas

  • European Union law.

  • EU constitutional law.

  • EU internal market law.

  • EU competition law.

  • European human rights law. 

  • Business in the internal market.

  • International business law (in a European context).

  • EU trade and foreign relations law.

  • EU procedural law.

Awards and Grants

  • Swedish Competition Authority (Konkurrensverket), National competition authority research grant 2024 (Konkurrensverket forskningbidrag 2024) 1.875m SEK (€160,000) (2024). 
  • Independent Research Fund Denmark (Danmarks Frie Forskningsfond). Sapere Aude Research Leader (Sapere Aude Forskningleder). Agency for Education and Research (Uddannelses- og Forskningsstyrelsen), Ministry for Education and Research of Denmark (Uddannelses- og Forskningsministeriet). 6.188m DKK (€830,000) (2021).

  • School of Business and Social Science (BSS), Aarhus University. Researcher of the Year (Shortlist) (2018).

  • Aarhus University Research Foundation (Aarhus Universitets Forskningsfond) (AUFF). Starting Grant. 1,232m DKK (€165,000) (2017).

  • Egmont (Royal Institute for International Relations, Brussels, Belgium); European Security and Defence College (ESDC) (Council of the European Union and European External Action Service (EEAS), Brussels, Belgium); and the EU Institute for Security Studies (EUISS), Paris, France. Global Strategy Prize (Shortlist) (2017)

  • Professor dr. jur. Max Sørensens Memorial Foundation (Professor dr. jur. Max Sørensens Mindelegat). Max Sørensen Fellowship (2017).

  • Department of Law Research Fund (Juridisk Institut Forskningspuljer), Aarhus University, Denmark. 18,400 DKK (2017).

  • Copenhagen Congress and Event Awards, City of Copenhagen (Københavns Kommune). Initiative of the Year Award (Årets Initiativpris) (2016).

  • European Research at the University of Copenhagen (EURECO). University of Copenhagen, Denmark. 64,950 DKK (2016).

  • The Dreyer Foundation (Dreyers Fond), Denmark. 49,950 DKK (2016).

  • Reinholdt W. Jorck and Wife Foundation (Reinholdt W. Jorck og Hustrus Fond). 50,000 DKK (2016).

  • European Research at the University of Copenhagen (EURECO). University of Copenhagen, Denmark. 35,000 DKK (2014).

  • Doctoral/PhD Fellowship Faculty of Law, University of Copenhagen (Juridisk Institut, Københavns Universitet), Denmark. 1,218m DKK (€163,000)) (2013). 

Research Councils and Evaluations of Research

  • Panel Member, Law and Political Science Panel, Foundation for Science and Technology (Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia) (FCT), Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education (Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior), Lisbon, Portugal [Portuguese Research Council] (2024). 
  • Member of the International Review Panel, Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions, Horizon Europe, European Research Executive Agency (REA), European Commission, Brussels, Belgium (2023).

  • Member of International Review Panel, Citizens, Equality, Rights and Values programme and the adoption of the work programme for 2023-2024, European Education and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA), European Commission, Brussels, Belgium (2023).

  • Panel Member, Law and Political Science Panel, Foundation for Science and Technology (Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia) (FCT), Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education (Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior), Lisbon, Portugal [Portuguese Research Council] (2022).

  • Reserve Expert Assessor, Law and Legal Sciences panel within Social Sciences, Reform Implementing a System of Periodic Assessment of Research Performance, Ministry of Education, Science, Research, and Sport (Ministerstvo školstva, vedy, výskumu a športu Slovenskej republiky), Bratislava, Slovak Republic (2022).

  • Reviewer, Dutch Research Council (Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek) (NWO), Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (Ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschappen), The Hague, the Netherlands (2021).

Examinerships

  • Member, Ph.D. Assessment Committee, Department of European and Economic Law, Faculty of Law (Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid), University of Groningen (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen), the Netherlands (2023). 
  • Member, Examiners Body for Accredited Education Programmes at the Royal Danish Defence College (Forsvarsakademiets Censorkorps for Forsvarets akkrediterede uddannelser i Danmark), appointed by the Royal Danish Defence College, under the authority of the Defence Command (Forsvarskommando), Danish Armed Forces (Forsvaret), Ministry of Defence of Denmark (Forsvarsministeriet) (2024-2027). 

    • External Examiner, Military Diploma Education (Den Militære Diplomuddannelse) and the Master in Military Studies (Master i Militære Studier), Royal Danish Defence College (Forsvarsakademiet) (2024-). 

  • Member, Examiners Body for Legal Education in Denmark (Medlam af Censorkorpset for Jurauddannelsen i Danmark), appointed by the Agency for Education and Research (Uddannelses- og Forskningsstyrelsen), Ministry for Education and Research of Denmark (Uddannelses- og Forskningsministeriet) (2022-2026).

    • External Examiner, Faculty of Law, University of Copenhagen, Denmark (2022-). 

  • Member of the External Examiners Board (European law degrees/courses/modules), School of Law (Scoil an Dlí), University College Cork (Coláiste na hOllscoile Corcaigh), Cork, Ireland, appointed by the Senate of the National University of Ireland (2023-2027).

    • Degrees/courses/modules: Constitutional and Institutional Law of the European Union (LW1112, LW2100), Economic Law of the European Union (LW2102, LW2204), International to European Union Law (LW6567), The Role of Law in the Future of Europe: Critical Perspectives (LW6641), Droit institutionnel de l'Union européenne (LW1114), Contemporary Issues in EU Competition Law (LW6650).

  • Thesis Supervisor, European Legal Regulation (Europarättslig reglering), School of Business and Economics (Ekonomihögskolan), Linnaeus University (Linnéuniversitetet), Växjö, Sweden (2023).

  • External Examiner, Masters studies degree, Faculty of Law (Det juridiske fakultet), University of Oslo (Universitetet i Oslo), Norway (2019).

 

Professor Graham Butler (B.A., LL.M., Ph.D.), Full Professor of Law.

SDU webpage: portal.findresearcher.sdu.dk/en/persons/graham-butler

Email: [email protected]

Website: grahambutler.eu 

LinkedIn: linkedin.com/in/grahambutler1

Twitter: @GrahamButler1

Education/Academic qualification

B.A.

LL.M. (cand.jur)

Ph.D.

Research areas

  • EU Law
  • International Law
  • Banking Law
  • Capital Market Law
  • Company Law
  • Business Law Topics
  • Finance Law
  • Sale of Goods Law
  • Globalization and the Individual
  • Human rights
  • Legal System
  • Establishment of Companies in a Global World
  • Judicial Reform
  • The Rule of Law
  • Union Citizenship
  • International Trade
  • International Monetary Issues
  • EU Procurement Law
  • Human Rights
  • International Private and Procedural Law
  • Maritime Law
  • Military Studies
  • Transport Law
  • Denmark and Foreign Nations
  • EU and Europe
  • International Organizations
  • Internationale Society
  • Security and Conflict
  • Welfare State
  • Market State
  • Marketing Law
  • Special Tax Scheme for Businesses
  • Danish and International Arbitration
  • Administrative Law
  • Competition Law
  • Constitutional Law
  • Consumer Law
  • Energy and Environmental Law
  • Human Rights
  • Market Law (Competition and Marketing Law)
  • Municipal Supply Law
  • Outsourcing of Public Services
  • Public-Private Partnering
  • Tax Law
  • History of Law
  • Jurisprudence
  • Philosophy of Law
  • Sociology of Law
  • Supervision and Control

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