Growing evidences have associated Zika virus (ZIKV) infection with congenital malformations, including microcephaly. Nonetheless, signaling mechanisms that promote the disease outcome are far from being understood, affecting the development of suitable therapeutics. In this study, we applied shotgun mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics combined with cell biology approaches to characterize altered molecular pathways on human neuroprogenitor cells (NPC) and neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells infected by ZIKV-BR strain, obtained from the 2015 Brazilian outbreak. Furthermore, ZIKV-BR infected NPCs showed unique alteration of pathways involved in neurological diseases, cell death, survival and embryonic development compared to ZIKV-AF, showing a human adaptation of the Brazilian viral strain. Besides, infected neurons differentiated from NPC presented an impairment of neurogenesis and synaptogenesis processes. Taken together, these data explain that CNS developmental arrest observed in Congenital Zika Syndrome is beyond neuronal cell death.