Objective. To investigate whether adalimumab (ADA) reduces whole-body (WB-) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices for inflammation in the entheses, peripheral joints, sacroiliac joints, spine, and the entire body in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). Methods. An investigator-initiated, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded 48-week followup trial included 49 patients with axSpA, who had Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) ≥ 4.0 despite treatment with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and a clinical indication for tumor necrosis factor inhibitor treatment. Patients were randomized to subcutaneous ADA 40 mg or placebo every other week for 6 weeks; thereafter, all patients received ADA. Conventional MRI and WBMRI were performed at weeks 0, 6, 24, and 48. The primary WBMRI endpoint was the proportion of patients with an improvement in WBMRI total inflammation index above the smallest detectable change (SDC) at Week 6. Results. The primary WBMRI endpoint (improvement of SDC > 2.3) was met in 11 (44%) patients in the ADA group and 3 (13%) patients in the placebo group (p = 0.025, Fisher’s exact test). The primary conventional MRI endpoint, the minimally important change in Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada Spine MRI Inflammation Index at Week 6, was achieved by 9 (36%) patients in the ADA group and 4 (17%) patients in the placebo group (p = 0.20). The primary clinical endpoint, BASDAI reduction > 50% or 2.0 at Week 24, was attained by 32 (65%) patients. Conclusion. ADA provided significant reductions in WBMRI indices of peripheral, axial, and whole-body inflammation in patients with axSpA. WBMRI is promising for objective assessment and monitoring of peripheral and axial disease activity in future clinical trials.