Arterial calcification is associated with cardiovascular mortality in dialysis patients. Active matrix Gla protein (MGP) is a vitamin K-dependent inhibitor of arterial calcification. Elevated plasma concentrations of inactive MGP, i.e. dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP), are prevalent in dialysis patients. MGP inactivity might contribute to arterial calcification. We investigated whether vitamin K supplementation had an effect on arterial calcification in chronic dialysis patients.In a 2-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention trial, 48 dialysis patients were randomized to vitamin K [menaquinone-7 (MK-7), 360 µg daily] or placebo. MK-7 in serum and dp-ucMGP in plasma were used to assess vitamin K status. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and scores of coronary arterial calcification (CAC) and abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) were used to assess arterial calcification.Thirty-seven participants completed Year 1, and 21 completed Year 2. At Year 2, serum MK-7 was 40-fold higher, and plasma dp-ucMGP 40\% lower after vitamin K supplementation compared with placebo \mean dp-ucMGP difference: −1380 pmol/L [95\CI) −2029 to −730]\. There was no significant effect of vitamin K supplementation on cfPWV [mean difference at Year 2: 1.2 m/s (95\0.1 to 2.4)]. CAC Agatston score increased significantly in vitamin K supplemented participants, but was not significantly different from placebo [mean difference at Year 2: 664 (95\554 to 1881)]. AAC scores increased in both groups, significantly so within the placebo group at Year 1, but with no significant between-group differences.Vitamin K supplementation improved vitamin K status, but did not hinder or modify the progression of arterial calcification in dialysis patients.