Background Dystocia is one of the most common causes of cesarean section in nulliparous women. Studies have described the presence of vitamin D receptors in the myometrium, but it is still unclear whether vitamin D affects the contractility of the smooth muscles. We therefore aimed to determine the association between the vitamin D serum level at labor and the risk of dystocia. Method We conducted a case-control study between January 2012 and June 2017. Cases were primiparous women, with spontaneous onset of labor, who gave birth by cesarean section due to dystocia. Controls were primiparous women with a spontaneous vaginal delivery. We included 60 women (30 cases and 30 controls) in the analysis. The differences between cases and controls were assessed using chi-squared test for categorical variables and two-sample t-test or unequal t-test for continuous variables, as appropriate, after evaluation of whether they followed the normal distributions. Results The mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were 53.1nmol/l (95%CI; 45.2 to 60.9) among cases and 69.9nmol/l (95%CI; 57.5 to 82.4) among controls (P = 0.02). The mean plasma parathyroid hormone levels were 2.25 pmol/l and 2.38, respectively (P = 0.57). Even though 78% of all women reported taking a minimum of 10μg/day of vitamin D throughout pregnancy, 43% had vitamin D insufficiency, defined as serum 25-hydroxyvita-min D levels below 50nmol/l. Conclusions In a Danish group of women having a cesarean section due to dystocia, we found decreased vitamin D levels.