Background: The aim of the present study was to describe the development of strategies to prevent and rehabilitate musculoskeletal pain among surgeons. Musculoskeletal pain affects surgeons' life, and evidence on interventions for effective prevention and rehabilitation is lacking for this occupational group. Methods: An Intervention Mapping approach was used to develop intervention strategies specifically tailored to surgeons. This approach entailed conducting a systematic scoping literature search and semi-structured interviews with six surgeons. Results: The first step was to develop a logic model of the problem of musculoskeletal pain among surgeons. Step two was to formulate health-enhancing outcomes and performance objectives for the intervention, while in step three theory-based methods and practical strategies for the intervention were identified. Conclusion: The present Intervention Mapping study demonstrated that musculoskeletal pain among surgeons is a complex area that needs attention. Our findings highlight a need for individual behavioural changes as well as organisational, attitudinal, and management changes.