Using a semi-mechanistic model to identify the main sources of variability of metformin pharmacokinetics

Tore Bjerregaard Stage, Gustaf Wellhagen, Mette Marie Hougaard Christensen, Benjamin Guiastrennec, Kim Brøsen, Maria C Kjellsson

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    Metformin pharmacokinetics (PK) is highly variable, and researchers have for years tried to shed light on determinants of inter-individual (IIV) and inter-occasion variability (IOV) of metformin PK. We set out to identify the main sources of PK variability using a semi-mechanistic model. We assessed the influence of subject characteristics, including seven genetic variants. Data from three studies of healthy individuals with PK measurements of plasma and urine after single dose or at steady-state were used in this study. In total, 87 subjects were included (16 crossover subjects). Single nucleotide polymorphisms in ATM, OCT1, OCT2, MATE1 and MATE2-K were investigated as dominant, recessive or additive. A three-compartment model with transit absorption and renal elimination with a proportional error was fitted to the data using NONMEM 7.3. Oral parameters were separated from disposition parameters as dose-dependent absolute bioavailability was determined with support from urine data. Clearance was expressed as net renal secretion and filtration, assuming full fraction unbound and fraction excreted. Mean transit time and peripheral volume of distribution were identified as the main sources of variability according to estimates, with 94% IOV and 95% IIV, respectively. Clearance contributed only with 16% IIV. Glomerular filtration rate and body-weight were the only covariates found to affect metformin net secretion, reducing IIV to 14%. None of the genetic variants were found to affect metformin PK. Based on our analysis, finding covariates explaining absorption of metformin is much more valuable in understanding variability and avoiding toxicity than elimination.

    TidsskriftBasic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
    Udgave nummer1
    Sider (fra-til)105-114
    StatusUdgivet - jan. 2019


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