Brain parenchymal lesions are frequently observed on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorder, but the specific morphological and temporal patterns distinguishing them unequivocally from lesions caused by other disorders have not been identified. This literature review summarizes the literature on advanced quantitative imaging measures reported for patients with NMO spectrum disorder, including proton MR spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetization transfer imaging, quantitative MR volumetry, and ultrahigh-field strength MRI. It was undertaken to consider the advanced MRI techniques used for patients with NMO by different specialists in the field. Although quantitative measures such as proton MR spectroscopy or magnetization transfer imaging have not reproducibly revealed diffuse brain injury, preliminary data from diffusion-weighted imaging and brain tissue volumetry indicate greater white matter than gray matter degradation. These findings could be confirmed by ultrahigh-field MRI. The use of nonconventional MRI techniques may further our understanding of the pathogenic processes in NMO spectrum disorders and may help us identify the distinct radiographic features corresponding to specific phenotypic manifestations of this disease.
Bibliografisk noteBayer Schering Pharma; Biogen Idec; Genzyme; Kael-GemVax; Merck Serono; Novartis; Teva-Handok; UCB; German Research Council; German Ministry of Education and Research (Competence Network Multiple Sclerosis [KKNMS]); GJCF; Bayer; Teva; Merck; Sanofi; Chugai Pharma; Bayer Schering; National MS Society; Roche; Bayer Healthcare; Genzyme Corp; Teva Neuroscience; Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan; Ichiro Kanehara Foundation; German Ministry of Science (BMBF/KKNMS); Canadian MS Research Foundation; Canadian MS Society; Canadian Institutes of Health Research; Multiple Sclerosis Association of America; DioGenix; Amplimmune; Biogen; National Institutes of Health; Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute; Acorda Therapeutics; Viropharma; Acorda; NeuralStem; Genentech; European Commission; Instituto Salud Carlos III; Marato TV3; Eisai; Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corp; Novartis Pharma; Astellas Pharma; Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited; Asahi Kasei Medical; Daiichi Sankyo; Nihon Pharmaceutical; Biogen Idec Japan; Chemo-Sero-Therapeutic Research Institute; Teva Pharmaceutical; Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma; Teijin Pharma; Chugai Pharmaceutical; Ono Pharmaceutical; Genzyme Japan; Ministry of Education, Science and Technology in Japan ; Ministry of Health, Welfare and Labour of Japan; Teva Pharmaceuticals; Opexa Therapeutics; US Department of Veterans Affairs; German Research Council (DFG); German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF-EDEN); Alexion; Terumo BCT 1 26010909
- BRAIN-LESION DISTRIBUTION VOXEL-BASED MORPHOMETRY APPEARING WHITE-MATTER MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT MRI ABNORMALITIES FUNCTIONAL MRI DIFFUSION DAMAGE MS