Untargeted metabolomics and infrared ion spectroscopy identify biomarkers for pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy

Udo Fg Engelke, Rianne E van Outersterp, Jona Merx, Fred Amg van Geenen, Arno van Rooij, Giel Berden, Marleen Cdg Huigen, Leo Aj Kluijtmans, Tessa Ma Peters, Hilal H Al-Shekaili, Blair R Leavitt, Erik de Vrieze, Sanne Broekman, Erwin van Wijk, Laura A Tseng, Purva Kulkarni, Floris Pjt Rutjes, Jasmin Mecinović, Eduard A Struys, Laura A JansenSidney M Gospe, Saadet Mercimek-Andrews, Keith Hyland, Michel Aap Willemsen, Levinus A Bok, Clara Dm Van Karnebeek, Ron A Wevers, Thomas J Boltje, Jos Oomens, Jonathan Martens, Karlien Lm Coene

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Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE-ALDH7A1), also known as antiquitin deficiency, is an inborn error of lysine metabolism that presents with refractory epilepsy in newborns. Bi-allelic ALDH7A1 variants lead to deficiency of α-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, resulting in accumulation of piperideine-6-carboxylate (P6C), and secondary deficiency of the important co-factor pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP, active vitamin B6) through its complexation with P6C. Vitamin B6 supplementation resolves epilepsy in patients, but despite this treatment, intellectual disability may occur. Early diagnosis and treatment, preferably based on newborn screening, potentially optimize long-term clinical outcome. However, the currently known diagnostic PDE-ALDH7A1 biomarkers are incompatible with newborn screening procedures. Combining of the innovative analytical methods untargeted metabolomics and infrared ion spectroscopy, we were able to discover a novel biomarker for PDE-ALDH7A1,2S,6S- and 2S,6R-oxopropylpiperidine-2-carboxylic acid (2-OPP), and confirmed 6-oxopiperidine-2-carboxylic acid (6-oxoPIP)as biomarker. We demonstrated the applicability of 2-OPP as a PDE-ALDH7A1 biomarker in newborn screening. Additionally, we showed that 2-OPP accumulates in brain tissue of patients and aldh7a1 knock-out mice, and induced epilepsy-like behavior in a zebrafish model system. We speculate that 2-OPP may contribute to ongoing neurotoxicity, also in treated PDE-ALDH7A1 patients. As 2-OPP formation appears to increase upon ketosis, we emphasize the importance of avoiding catabolism in PDE-ALDH7A1 patients.

TidsskriftJournal of Clinical Investigation
StatusE-pub ahead of print - 17. jun. 2021


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