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Manure and digestate liquid fractions are nutrient-rich effluents that can be fractionated and concentrated using membranes. However, these membranes tend to foul due to organic matter, solids, colloids, and inorganic compounds including calcium, ammonium, sodium, sulfur, potas-sium, phosphorus, and magnesium contained in the feed. This review paper is intended as a theoretical and practical tool for the decision-making process during design of membrane-based systems aiming at processing manure liquid fractions. Firstly, this review paper gives an overview of the main physico-chemical characteristics of manure and digestates. Furthermore, solid-liquid separation technologies are described and the complexity of the physico-chemical variables affecting the separation process is discussed. The main factors influencing membrane fouling mechanisms, mor-phology and characteristics are described, as well as techniques covering membrane inspection and foulant analysis. Secondly, the effects of the feed characteristics, membrane operating conditions (pressure, cross-flow velocity, temperature), pH, flocculation-coagulation and membrane cleaning on fouling and membrane performance are presented. Finally, a summary of techniques for specific recovery of ammonia-nitrogen, phosphorus and removal of heavy metals for farm effluents is also presented.
|Tidsskrift||International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health|
|Status||Udgivet - 2. mar. 2021|
Bibliografisk noteFunding Information:
The authors acknowledge the funding received from Innovation Fund Denmark and the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007?2013/under REA grant agreement number (289887). This research work was funded by the European Regional Development Fund as part of the Interreg North Sea Region project 38?2-4? 17 BIOCAS, circular BIOmass CAScade to 100%, to whom KVC, ME, and MCRS would like to express their gratitude.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
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- 2 Afsluttet
Camilleri Rumbau, M. S., Fjerbæk Søtoft, L., Christensen, K. V., Norddahl, B. & Sommer, S. G.
01/01/2012 → 31/12/2015
Projekter: Projekt › Forskning