Transcriptional reprogramming during human osteoclast differentiation identifies regulators of osteoclast activity

Morten S. Hansen, Kaja Madsen, Maria Price, Kent Søe, Yasunori Omata, Mario M. Zaiss, Caroline M. Gorvin, Morten Frost*, Alexander Rauch*

*Kontaktforfatter

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Abstract

Enhanced osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity contribute to the development of osteoporosis, which is characterized by increased bone resorption and inadequate bone formation. As novel antiosteoporotic therapeutics are needed, understanding the genetic regulation of human osteoclastogenesis could help identify potential treatment targets. This study aimed to provide an overview of transcriptional reprogramming during human osteoclast differentiation. Osteoclasts were differentiated from CD14 + monocytes from eight female donors. RNA sequencing during differentiation revealed 8 980 differentially expressed genes grouped into eight temporal patterns conserved across donors. These patterns revealed distinct molecular functions associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis susceptibility genes based on RNA from iliac crest biopsies and bone mineral density SNPs. Network analyses revealed mutual dependencies between temporal expression patterns and provided insight into subtype-specific transcriptional networks. The donor-specific expression patterns revealed genes at the monocyte stage, such as filamin B (FLNB) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (OLR1, encoding LOX-1), that are predictive of the resorptive activity of mature osteoclasts. The expression of differentially expressed G-protein coupled receptors was strong during osteoclast differentiation, and these receptors are associated with bone mineral density SNPs, suggesting that they play a pivotal role in osteoclast differentiation and activity. The regulatory effects of three differentially expressed G-protein coupled receptors were exemplified by in vitro pharmacological modulation of complement 5 A receptor 1 (C5AR1), somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2), and free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFAR4/GPR120). Activating C5AR1 enhanced osteoclast formation, while activating SSTR2 decreased the resorptive activity of mature osteoclasts, and activating FFAR4 decreased both the number and resorptive activity of mature osteoclasts. In conclusion, we report the occurrence of transcriptional reprogramming during human osteoclast differentiation and identified SSTR2 and FFAR4 as antiresorptive G-protein coupled receptors and FLNB and LOX-1 as potential molecular markers of osteoclast activity. These data can help future investigations identify molecular regulators of osteoclast differentiation and activity and provide the basis for novel antiosteoporotic targets.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummer5
TidsskriftBone Research
Vol/bind12
Udgave nummer1
ISSN2095-4700
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 24. jan. 2024

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