Purpose: The predictive role of the quantification of thymidylate synthase (TS) in tumors treated with antifolate drugs, such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), has been extensively reported in a variety of human tumors. Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) represent potential targets of antifolate agents, but no data on TS expression level in these tumors are currently available. Experimental Design: A series of 116 NETs were collected, including 58 gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) and 58 lung NETs. In 24 well-differentiated GEP neuroendocrine carcinomas (WD-NEC), a 5-FU-based treatment was given. Total RNA was extracted from microdissected paraffin blocks. TS mRNA quantification was done by real-time PCR, whereas protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results: By means of both quantification by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, a higher TS expression in pulmonary small cell lung cancer and large cell NEC compared with typical and atypical carcinoids was observed (P < 0.01). Similarly, in GEP tumors, a higher TS expression in poorly differentiated carcinomas than both WD-NEC and benign tumors (P < 0.01) was found. In patients with WD-NEC treated with 5-FU, high TS mRNA levels were associated with shorter time to progression (P = 0.002) and overall survival (P = 0.04). This negative prognostic role was confirmed in multivariate analysis adjusting for major prognostic variables (P = 0.01). No association between TS mRNA and survival was observed in WD-NEC patients not receiving 5-FU. Conclusions: This study, for the first time, (a) reports the differential TS expression in the spectrum of NETs and (b) indicates TS as a possible predictive marker of treatment efficacy in WD-NEC patients treated with 5-FU.