BACKGROUND: Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is a benign condition caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Surgery is the mainstay of treatment, but numerous adjuvant therapies have been applied to improve surgical outcome. Recently, HPV vaccination has been introduced, but only smaller studies of its effect have been published. The present meta-analysis is intended as a possible substitute for a proposed but not yet realized multicenter randomized controlled trial. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis statement. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane were systematically searched. All retrieved studies (n = 593) were reviewed and qualitatively assessed. In addition, 2 previously unpublished data sets were included. The systematic review included 11 studies, comprising 133 patients, of whom 63 patients from 5 studies were eligible for meta-analysis. A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted for the mean difference in number of surgical procedures per month before and after vaccination. RESULTS: The number of surgical procedures per month was significantly reduced after HPV vaccination compared with before vaccination (estimated mean, 0.06 vs 0.35). The mean intersurgical interval increased from 7.02 months (range, 0.30-45 months) before to 34.45 months (2.71-82 months) after HPV vaccination. CONCLUSION: The present study supports the continued use of the HPV vaccine as an adjuvant treatment for recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.