Idiopathic scoliosis is a three-dimensional (3D) deformity of the spine. In clinical practice, however, the diagnosis and treatment of scoliosis consider only two dimensions (2D) as they rely solely on postero-anterior (PA) and lateral radiographs. Thus, the projections of the deformity are evaluated in only the coronal and sagittal planes, whereas those in the axial plane are disregarded, precluding an accurate assessment of the 3D deformity. A universal dogma in engineering is that designing a 3D object requires drawing projections of the object in all three planes. Similarly, when dealing with a 3D deformity, knowledge of the abnormalities in all three planes is crucial, as each plane is as important as the other two planes. This article reviews the chronological development of axial plane imaging and spinal deformity measurement.