The risk of cryptorchidism among sons of women working in horticulture in Denmark: a cohort study

Pernille Gabel, Morten Sondergaard Jensen, Helle Raun Andersen, Jesper Bælum, Ane Marie Thulstrup, Jens Peter Bonde, Gunnar Toft

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Resumé

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Androgens are crucial for normal testicular descent. Studies show that some pesticides have estrogenic or antiandrogenic effects, and that female workers exposed to pesticides have increased risk of having a boy with cryptorchidism. The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether pregnant women exposed to pesticides due to their work in horticulture experience excess risk of having sons with cryptorchidism. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of pregnant women working in horticulture using four cohorts including one cohort established with data from the departments of occupational medicine in Jutland and Funen and three existing mother-child cohorts (n=1,468). A reference group was established from the entire Danish population of boys born in the period of 1986-2007 (n=783,817). Nationwide Danish health registers provided information on birth outcome, cryptorchidism diagnosis and orchiopexy. The level of occupational exposure to pesticides was assessed by expert judgment blinded towards outcome status. Risk of cryptorchidism among exposed horticulture workers compared to the background population and to unexposed horticulture workers was assessed by Cox regression models. RESULTS: Pesticide exposed women employed in horticulture had a hazard ratio (HR) of having cryptorchid sons of 1.39 (95% CI 0.84; 2.31) and a HR of orchiopexy of 1.34 (0.72; 2.49) compared to the background population. Analysis divided into separate cohorts revealed a significantly increased risk of cryptorchidism in cohort 2: HR 2.58 (1.07;6.20) and increased risk of orchiopexy in cohort 4: HR 2.76 (1.03;7.35), but no significant associations in the other cohorts. Compared to unexposed women working in horticulture, pesticide exposed women had a risk of having sons with cryptorchidism of 1.34 (0.30; 5.96) and of orchiopexy of 1.93 (0.24;15.4). CONCLUSIONS: The data are compatible with a slightly increased risk of cryptorchidism in sons of women exposed to pesticides by working in horticulture.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftEnvironmental Health: A Global Access Science Source
Vol/bind10
Udgave nummer1
Sider (fra-til)100
ISSN1476-069X
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2011

Fingeraftryk

Working Women
Cryptorchidism
Denmark
Nuclear Family
Pesticides
Cohort Studies
Orchiopexy
Pregnant Women
Population
Occupational Medicine
Occupational Exposure
Proportional Hazards Models
Mothers
Health

Citer dette

Gabel, Pernille ; Jensen, Morten Sondergaard ; Andersen, Helle Raun ; Bælum, Jesper ; Thulstrup, Ane Marie ; Bonde, Jens Peter ; Toft, Gunnar. / The risk of cryptorchidism among sons of women working in horticulture in Denmark: a cohort study. I: Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source. 2011 ; Bind 10, Nr. 1. s. 100.
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title = "The risk of cryptorchidism among sons of women working in horticulture in Denmark: a cohort study",
abstract = "ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Androgens are crucial for normal testicular descent. Studies show that some pesticides have estrogenic or antiandrogenic effects, and that female workers exposed to pesticides have increased risk of having a boy with cryptorchidism. The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether pregnant women exposed to pesticides due to their work in horticulture experience excess risk of having sons with cryptorchidism. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of pregnant women working in horticulture using four cohorts including one cohort established with data from the departments of occupational medicine in Jutland and Funen and three existing mother-child cohorts (n=1,468). A reference group was established from the entire Danish population of boys born in the period of 1986-2007 (n=783,817). Nationwide Danish health registers provided information on birth outcome, cryptorchidism diagnosis and orchiopexy. The level of occupational exposure to pesticides was assessed by expert judgment blinded towards outcome status. Risk of cryptorchidism among exposed horticulture workers compared to the background population and to unexposed horticulture workers was assessed by Cox regression models. RESULTS: Pesticide exposed women employed in horticulture had a hazard ratio (HR) of having cryptorchid sons of 1.39 (95{\%} CI 0.84; 2.31) and a HR of orchiopexy of 1.34 (0.72; 2.49) compared to the background population. Analysis divided into separate cohorts revealed a significantly increased risk of cryptorchidism in cohort 2: HR 2.58 (1.07;6.20) and increased risk of orchiopexy in cohort 4: HR 2.76 (1.03;7.35), but no significant associations in the other cohorts. Compared to unexposed women working in horticulture, pesticide exposed women had a risk of having sons with cryptorchidism of 1.34 (0.30; 5.96) and of orchiopexy of 1.93 (0.24;15.4). CONCLUSIONS: The data are compatible with a slightly increased risk of cryptorchidism in sons of women exposed to pesticides by working in horticulture.",
author = "Pernille Gabel and Jensen, {Morten Sondergaard} and Andersen, {Helle Raun} and Jesper B{\ae}lum and Thulstrup, {Ane Marie} and Bonde, {Jens Peter} and Gunnar Toft",
year = "2011",
doi = "10.1186/1476-069X-10-100",
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The risk of cryptorchidism among sons of women working in horticulture in Denmark: a cohort study. / Gabel, Pernille; Jensen, Morten Sondergaard; Andersen, Helle Raun; Bælum, Jesper; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar.

I: Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source, Bind 10, Nr. 1, 2011, s. 100.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The risk of cryptorchidism among sons of women working in horticulture in Denmark: a cohort study

AU - Gabel, Pernille

AU - Jensen, Morten Sondergaard

AU - Andersen, Helle Raun

AU - Bælum, Jesper

AU - Thulstrup, Ane Marie

AU - Bonde, Jens Peter

AU - Toft, Gunnar

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Androgens are crucial for normal testicular descent. Studies show that some pesticides have estrogenic or antiandrogenic effects, and that female workers exposed to pesticides have increased risk of having a boy with cryptorchidism. The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether pregnant women exposed to pesticides due to their work in horticulture experience excess risk of having sons with cryptorchidism. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of pregnant women working in horticulture using four cohorts including one cohort established with data from the departments of occupational medicine in Jutland and Funen and three existing mother-child cohorts (n=1,468). A reference group was established from the entire Danish population of boys born in the period of 1986-2007 (n=783,817). Nationwide Danish health registers provided information on birth outcome, cryptorchidism diagnosis and orchiopexy. The level of occupational exposure to pesticides was assessed by expert judgment blinded towards outcome status. Risk of cryptorchidism among exposed horticulture workers compared to the background population and to unexposed horticulture workers was assessed by Cox regression models. RESULTS: Pesticide exposed women employed in horticulture had a hazard ratio (HR) of having cryptorchid sons of 1.39 (95% CI 0.84; 2.31) and a HR of orchiopexy of 1.34 (0.72; 2.49) compared to the background population. Analysis divided into separate cohorts revealed a significantly increased risk of cryptorchidism in cohort 2: HR 2.58 (1.07;6.20) and increased risk of orchiopexy in cohort 4: HR 2.76 (1.03;7.35), but no significant associations in the other cohorts. Compared to unexposed women working in horticulture, pesticide exposed women had a risk of having sons with cryptorchidism of 1.34 (0.30; 5.96) and of orchiopexy of 1.93 (0.24;15.4). CONCLUSIONS: The data are compatible with a slightly increased risk of cryptorchidism in sons of women exposed to pesticides by working in horticulture.

AB - ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Androgens are crucial for normal testicular descent. Studies show that some pesticides have estrogenic or antiandrogenic effects, and that female workers exposed to pesticides have increased risk of having a boy with cryptorchidism. The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether pregnant women exposed to pesticides due to their work in horticulture experience excess risk of having sons with cryptorchidism. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of pregnant women working in horticulture using four cohorts including one cohort established with data from the departments of occupational medicine in Jutland and Funen and three existing mother-child cohorts (n=1,468). A reference group was established from the entire Danish population of boys born in the period of 1986-2007 (n=783,817). Nationwide Danish health registers provided information on birth outcome, cryptorchidism diagnosis and orchiopexy. The level of occupational exposure to pesticides was assessed by expert judgment blinded towards outcome status. Risk of cryptorchidism among exposed horticulture workers compared to the background population and to unexposed horticulture workers was assessed by Cox regression models. RESULTS: Pesticide exposed women employed in horticulture had a hazard ratio (HR) of having cryptorchid sons of 1.39 (95% CI 0.84; 2.31) and a HR of orchiopexy of 1.34 (0.72; 2.49) compared to the background population. Analysis divided into separate cohorts revealed a significantly increased risk of cryptorchidism in cohort 2: HR 2.58 (1.07;6.20) and increased risk of orchiopexy in cohort 4: HR 2.76 (1.03;7.35), but no significant associations in the other cohorts. Compared to unexposed women working in horticulture, pesticide exposed women had a risk of having sons with cryptorchidism of 1.34 (0.30; 5.96) and of orchiopexy of 1.93 (0.24;15.4). CONCLUSIONS: The data are compatible with a slightly increased risk of cryptorchidism in sons of women exposed to pesticides by working in horticulture.

U2 - 10.1186/1476-069X-10-100

DO - 10.1186/1476-069X-10-100

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 22082298

VL - 10

SP - 100

JO - Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source

JF - Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source

SN - 1476-069X

IS - 1

ER -