Background Mutations in the lipoprotein lipase gene causing decreased lipoprotein lipase activity are associated with surrogate markers of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome in humans. Objective We investigated the hypothesis that a heterozygous lipoprotein lipase mutation (N291S) induces whole-body insulin resistance and alterations in the plasma metabolome. Methods In 6 carriers of a heterozygous lipoprotein lipase mutation (N291S) and 11 age-matched and weight-matched healthy controls, we examined insulin sensitivity and substrate metabolism by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps combined with indirect calorimetry. Plasma samples were taken before and after the clamp (4 hours of physiological hyperinsulinemia), and metabolites were measured enzymatically or by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results Compared with healthy controls, heterozygous carriers of a defective lipoprotein lipase allele had elevated fasting plasma levels triglycerides (P < .006), and markedly impaired insulin-stimulated glucose disposal rates (P < .024) and nonoxidative glucose metabolism (P < .015). Plasma metabolite profiling demonstrated lower circulating levels of pyruvic acid and α-tocopherol in the N291S carriers than in controls both before and after stimulation with insulin (all >1.5-fold change and P < .05). Conclusion Heterozygous carriers with a defective lipoprotein lipase allele are less insulin sensitive and have increased plasma levels of nonesterified fatty acids and triglycerides. The heterozygous N291S carriers also have a distinct plasma metabolomic signature, which may serve as a diagnostic tool for deficient lipoprotein lipase activity and as a marker of lipid-induced insulin resistance.