The effect of inactivated mycobacterium paratuberculosis vaccine on the response to a heterologous bacterial challenge in pigs

Kristoffer Jarlov Jensen*, Mette Sif Hansen, Peter Mikael Helweg Heegaard, Christine Stabell Benn, Gregers Jungersen

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Resumé

Background: Vaccines may have non-specific effects, affecting resistance to heterologous pathogens. Veterinary vaccines have seldom been investigated for their non-specific effects. However, recent observational studies suggest that an inactivated paratuberculosis vaccine reduced all-cause mortality in goats and cattle. Aim: We tested if vaccination with a killed mycobacterial vaccine may have heterologous effects in swine (Sus domesticus), specifically on the pathogenic and clinical effects of a heterologous challenge with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in young pigs. Methods: Newborn piglets were randomized to vaccination s.c. with the inactivated paratuberculosis vaccine Gudair (Zoetis Inc.) (n = 17) or no vaccine (n = 16). At 4-5 weeks after vaccination, all piglets were challenged intra-nasally with a high (Gudair: N = 8; control: N = 8) or a low (Gudair: N = 9; control: N = 8) dose of the gram-negative bacterium A. pleuropneumoniae causing acute porcine pleuropneumonia. The effect and severity of pathogen challenge was evaluated by measuring acute phase proteins C-reactive protein, haptoglobin and Porcine α1-acid glycoprotein, and by gross pathology 1 day post challenge. Specific and non-specific in vitro cytokine responses to vaccination were evaluated in whole blood before bacterial challenge. Results: The vaccine was immunogenic in the pigs as evidenced by increased IFN-γ responses to purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. However, Gudair vaccine did not affect IL-6 responses. The gross pathology of the lungs as well as the acute phase protein responses after the high A. pleuropneumoniae dose challenge was slightly increased in the vaccinated animals compared with controls, whereas this was not seen in the animals receiving the low-dose bacterial challenge. Conclusion: The inactivated paratuberculosis vaccine exacerbated the pathological and inflammatory effects of an experimental A. pleuropneumoniae infection in young pigs.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummer1557
TidsskriftFrontiers in Immunology
Vol/bind10
Udgave nummerJULY
Antal sider11
ISSN1664-3224
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 5. jul. 2019

Fingeraftryk

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
Paratuberculosis
Pleuropneumonia
Pathology
Acute-Phase Reaction
Haptoglobins
Protein C
Interleukin-6
Lung
Acids

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title = "The effect of inactivated mycobacterium paratuberculosis vaccine on the response to a heterologous bacterial challenge in pigs",
abstract = "Background: Vaccines may have non-specific effects, affecting resistance to heterologous pathogens. Veterinary vaccines have seldom been investigated for their non-specific effects. However, recent observational studies suggest that an inactivated paratuberculosis vaccine reduced all-cause mortality in goats and cattle. Aim: We tested if vaccination with a killed mycobacterial vaccine may have heterologous effects in swine (Sus domesticus), specifically on the pathogenic and clinical effects of a heterologous challenge with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in young pigs. Methods: Newborn piglets were randomized to vaccination s.c. with the inactivated paratuberculosis vaccine Gudair (Zoetis Inc.) (n = 17) or no vaccine (n = 16). At 4-5 weeks after vaccination, all piglets were challenged intra-nasally with a high (Gudair: N = 8; control: N = 8) or a low (Gudair: N = 9; control: N = 8) dose of the gram-negative bacterium A. pleuropneumoniae causing acute porcine pleuropneumonia. The effect and severity of pathogen challenge was evaluated by measuring acute phase proteins C-reactive protein, haptoglobin and Porcine α1-acid glycoprotein, and by gross pathology 1 day post challenge. Specific and non-specific in vitro cytokine responses to vaccination were evaluated in whole blood before bacterial challenge. Results: The vaccine was immunogenic in the pigs as evidenced by increased IFN-γ responses to purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. However, Gudair vaccine did not affect IL-6 responses. The gross pathology of the lungs as well as the acute phase protein responses after the high A. pleuropneumoniae dose challenge was slightly increased in the vaccinated animals compared with controls, whereas this was not seen in the animals receiving the low-dose bacterial challenge. Conclusion: The inactivated paratuberculosis vaccine exacerbated the pathological and inflammatory effects of an experimental A. pleuropneumoniae infection in young pigs.",
keywords = "Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Heterologous immunity, Mycobacterial vaccine, Non-specific effects of vaccines, Paratuberculosis vaccine, Pigs (sus domesticus)",
author = "Jensen, {Kristoffer Jarlov} and Hansen, {Mette Sif} and Heegaard, {Peter Mikael Helweg} and Benn, {Christine Stabell} and Gregers Jungersen",
year = "2019",
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The effect of inactivated mycobacterium paratuberculosis vaccine on the response to a heterologous bacterial challenge in pigs. / Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Hansen, Mette Sif; Heegaard, Peter Mikael Helweg; Benn, Christine Stabell; Jungersen, Gregers.

I: Frontiers in Immunology, Bind 10, Nr. JULY, 1557, 05.07.2019.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The effect of inactivated mycobacterium paratuberculosis vaccine on the response to a heterologous bacterial challenge in pigs

AU - Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov

AU - Hansen, Mette Sif

AU - Heegaard, Peter Mikael Helweg

AU - Benn, Christine Stabell

AU - Jungersen, Gregers

PY - 2019/7/5

Y1 - 2019/7/5

N2 - Background: Vaccines may have non-specific effects, affecting resistance to heterologous pathogens. Veterinary vaccines have seldom been investigated for their non-specific effects. However, recent observational studies suggest that an inactivated paratuberculosis vaccine reduced all-cause mortality in goats and cattle. Aim: We tested if vaccination with a killed mycobacterial vaccine may have heterologous effects in swine (Sus domesticus), specifically on the pathogenic and clinical effects of a heterologous challenge with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in young pigs. Methods: Newborn piglets were randomized to vaccination s.c. with the inactivated paratuberculosis vaccine Gudair (Zoetis Inc.) (n = 17) or no vaccine (n = 16). At 4-5 weeks after vaccination, all piglets were challenged intra-nasally with a high (Gudair: N = 8; control: N = 8) or a low (Gudair: N = 9; control: N = 8) dose of the gram-negative bacterium A. pleuropneumoniae causing acute porcine pleuropneumonia. The effect and severity of pathogen challenge was evaluated by measuring acute phase proteins C-reactive protein, haptoglobin and Porcine α1-acid glycoprotein, and by gross pathology 1 day post challenge. Specific and non-specific in vitro cytokine responses to vaccination were evaluated in whole blood before bacterial challenge. Results: The vaccine was immunogenic in the pigs as evidenced by increased IFN-γ responses to purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. However, Gudair vaccine did not affect IL-6 responses. The gross pathology of the lungs as well as the acute phase protein responses after the high A. pleuropneumoniae dose challenge was slightly increased in the vaccinated animals compared with controls, whereas this was not seen in the animals receiving the low-dose bacterial challenge. Conclusion: The inactivated paratuberculosis vaccine exacerbated the pathological and inflammatory effects of an experimental A. pleuropneumoniae infection in young pigs.

AB - Background: Vaccines may have non-specific effects, affecting resistance to heterologous pathogens. Veterinary vaccines have seldom been investigated for their non-specific effects. However, recent observational studies suggest that an inactivated paratuberculosis vaccine reduced all-cause mortality in goats and cattle. Aim: We tested if vaccination with a killed mycobacterial vaccine may have heterologous effects in swine (Sus domesticus), specifically on the pathogenic and clinical effects of a heterologous challenge with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in young pigs. Methods: Newborn piglets were randomized to vaccination s.c. with the inactivated paratuberculosis vaccine Gudair (Zoetis Inc.) (n = 17) or no vaccine (n = 16). At 4-5 weeks after vaccination, all piglets were challenged intra-nasally with a high (Gudair: N = 8; control: N = 8) or a low (Gudair: N = 9; control: N = 8) dose of the gram-negative bacterium A. pleuropneumoniae causing acute porcine pleuropneumonia. The effect and severity of pathogen challenge was evaluated by measuring acute phase proteins C-reactive protein, haptoglobin and Porcine α1-acid glycoprotein, and by gross pathology 1 day post challenge. Specific and non-specific in vitro cytokine responses to vaccination were evaluated in whole blood before bacterial challenge. Results: The vaccine was immunogenic in the pigs as evidenced by increased IFN-γ responses to purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. However, Gudair vaccine did not affect IL-6 responses. The gross pathology of the lungs as well as the acute phase protein responses after the high A. pleuropneumoniae dose challenge was slightly increased in the vaccinated animals compared with controls, whereas this was not seen in the animals receiving the low-dose bacterial challenge. Conclusion: The inactivated paratuberculosis vaccine exacerbated the pathological and inflammatory effects of an experimental A. pleuropneumoniae infection in young pigs.

KW - Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

KW - Heterologous immunity

KW - Mycobacterial vaccine

KW - Non-specific effects of vaccines

KW - Paratuberculosis vaccine

KW - Pigs (sus domesticus)

U2 - 10.3389/fimmu.2019.01557

DO - 10.3389/fimmu.2019.01557

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 31333678

AN - SCOPUS:85069477865

VL - 10

JO - Frontiers in Immunology

JF - Frontiers in Immunology

SN - 1664-3224

IS - JULY

M1 - 1557

ER -