Aims: This study aims to investigate the association between household crowding and household composition and self-rated health and mental health (GHQ scale) among the Inuit in Greenland. Poor housing conditions are a concern in Greenland, especially in the villages, where socioeconomic standards in general are lower. Methods: A cohort of 1282 adults participated in two population-based surveys in Greenland, the Inuit Health in Transition survey 2005–2010 (baseline) and The Health Survey in Greenland 2014 (follow-up). Associations between household conditions at baseline and health outcomes at follow-up (poor self-rated health and mental health measured by the GHQ scale) were examined using logistic regression models, adjusting for covariates at baseline. Results: Participants living in an overcrowded dwelling (more than one person per room) at baseline were more likely to report poor self-rated health at follow-up (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.09; 1.99) compared with those not living in an overcrowded dwelling. In addition, participants who lived alone at baseline were more likely (OR 1.98; 95% CI 1.09; 3.58) to experience poor mental health at follow-up compared with those who lived with children. Conclusions: Results indicate that household conditions are related to health in Greenland. Public health authorities should work to ensure affordable housing of good quality in all communities.