The associations between workplace bullying, salivary cortisol, and long-term sickness absence: a longitudinal study

Matias Brødsgaard Grynderup, Kirsten Nabe-Nielsen, Theis Lange, Paul Maurice Conway, Jens Peter Bonde, Anne Helene Garde, Maria Gullander, Linda Kaerlev, Roger Persson, Reiner Rugulies, Marianne Agergaard Vammen, Annie Høgh, Åse Marie Hansen

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

107 Downloads (Pure)

Resumé

BACKGROUND: Workplace stressors, such as bullying, are strongly related to subsequent long-term sickness absence, but little is known of the possible physiological mechanisms linking workplace stressors and sickness absence. The primary aim of this study was to investigate to what extent cortisol levels were associated with subsequent sickness absence and if cortisol mediated the association between workplace bullying and sickness absence. We additionally investigated possible bidirectional associations between bullying, cortisol, and long-term sickness absence.

METHODS: Participants came from two Danish cohort studies, the "Psychosocial RIsk factors for Stress and MEntal disease" (PRISME) cohort and the "Workplace Bullying and Harassment" (WBH) cohort (n = 5418). Information about exposure to workplace bullying and morning and evening salivary cortisol was collected at three time points with approximately two years in between. After each data collection, all participants were followed for two years in registers, and cases with long-term sickness absence lasting 30 or more consecutive days were identified. The association between cortisol levels and subsequent sickness absence was assessed by logistic regression, while the extent to which the association between bullying and sickness absence was mediated by cortisol was quantified through natural direct and indirect effects.

RESULTS: High evening cortisol was associated with a decreased risk of sickness absence (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68-0.99), but we did not find that high morning cortisol levels (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.81-1.18) or high morning-to-evening slope (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.82-1.18) were associated with subsequent sickness absence. We also tested for reverse causation and found that long-term sickness absence, but not salivary cortisol, was a strong risk factor for subsequent workplace bullying. There was no indication that cortisol mediated the association between workplace bullying and sickness absence.

CONCLUSION: We found no straightforward and simple association between cortisol and long-term sickness absence. Furthermore, the association between workplace bullying and long-term sickness absence was not mediated by cortisol.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummer710
TidsskriftB M C Public Health
Vol/bind17
Antal sider11
ISSN1471-2458
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2017

Fingeraftryk

Workplace
Longitudinal Studies
Causality
Cohort Studies
Logistic Models

Citer dette

Grynderup, M. B., Nabe-Nielsen, K., Lange, T., Conway, P. M., Bonde, J. P., Garde, A. H., ... Hansen, Å. M. (2017). The associations between workplace bullying, salivary cortisol, and long-term sickness absence: a longitudinal study. B M C Public Health, 17, [710]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4716-7
Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard ; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten ; Lange, Theis ; Conway, Paul Maurice ; Bonde, Jens Peter ; Garde, Anne Helene ; Gullander, Maria ; Kaerlev, Linda ; Persson, Roger ; Rugulies, Reiner ; Vammen, Marianne Agergaard ; Høgh, Annie ; Hansen, Åse Marie. / The associations between workplace bullying, salivary cortisol, and long-term sickness absence : a longitudinal study. I: B M C Public Health. 2017 ; Bind 17.
@article{9e227fa630f64b62a818532693b28524,
title = "The associations between workplace bullying, salivary cortisol, and long-term sickness absence: a longitudinal study",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Workplace stressors, such as bullying, are strongly related to subsequent long-term sickness absence, but little is known of the possible physiological mechanisms linking workplace stressors and sickness absence. The primary aim of this study was to investigate to what extent cortisol levels were associated with subsequent sickness absence and if cortisol mediated the association between workplace bullying and sickness absence. We additionally investigated possible bidirectional associations between bullying, cortisol, and long-term sickness absence.METHODS: Participants came from two Danish cohort studies, the {"}Psychosocial RIsk factors for Stress and MEntal disease{"} (PRISME) cohort and the {"}Workplace Bullying and Harassment{"} (WBH) cohort (n = 5418). Information about exposure to workplace bullying and morning and evening salivary cortisol was collected at three time points with approximately two years in between. After each data collection, all participants were followed for two years in registers, and cases with long-term sickness absence lasting 30 or more consecutive days were identified. The association between cortisol levels and subsequent sickness absence was assessed by logistic regression, while the extent to which the association between bullying and sickness absence was mediated by cortisol was quantified through natural direct and indirect effects.RESULTS: High evening cortisol was associated with a decreased risk of sickness absence (OR = 0.82, 95{\%} CI = 0.68-0.99), but we did not find that high morning cortisol levels (OR = 0.98, 95{\%} CI = 0.81-1.18) or high morning-to-evening slope (OR = 0.99, 95{\%} CI = 0.82-1.18) were associated with subsequent sickness absence. We also tested for reverse causation and found that long-term sickness absence, but not salivary cortisol, was a strong risk factor for subsequent workplace bullying. There was no indication that cortisol mediated the association between workplace bullying and sickness absence.CONCLUSION: We found no straightforward and simple association between cortisol and long-term sickness absence. Furthermore, the association between workplace bullying and long-term sickness absence was not mediated by cortisol.",
keywords = "Journal Article",
author = "Grynderup, {Matias Br{\o}dsgaard} and Kirsten Nabe-Nielsen and Theis Lange and Conway, {Paul Maurice} and Bonde, {Jens Peter} and Garde, {Anne Helene} and Maria Gullander and Linda Kaerlev and Roger Persson and Reiner Rugulies and Vammen, {Marianne Agergaard} and Annie H{\o}gh and Hansen, {{\AA}se Marie}",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1186/s12889-017-4716-7",
language = "English",
volume = "17",
journal = "B M C Public Health",
issn = "1471-2458",
publisher = "BioMed Central",

}

Grynderup, MB, Nabe-Nielsen, K, Lange, T, Conway, PM, Bonde, JP, Garde, AH, Gullander, M, Kaerlev, L, Persson, R, Rugulies, R, Vammen, MA, Høgh, A & Hansen, ÅM 2017, 'The associations between workplace bullying, salivary cortisol, and long-term sickness absence: a longitudinal study', B M C Public Health, bind 17, 710. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4716-7

The associations between workplace bullying, salivary cortisol, and long-term sickness absence : a longitudinal study. / Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Lange, Theis; Conway, Paul Maurice; Bonde, Jens Peter; Garde, Anne Helene; Gullander, Maria; Kaerlev, Linda; Persson, Roger; Rugulies, Reiner; Vammen, Marianne Agergaard; Høgh, Annie; Hansen, Åse Marie.

I: B M C Public Health, Bind 17, 710, 2017.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The associations between workplace bullying, salivary cortisol, and long-term sickness absence

T2 - a longitudinal study

AU - Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard

AU - Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten

AU - Lange, Theis

AU - Conway, Paul Maurice

AU - Bonde, Jens Peter

AU - Garde, Anne Helene

AU - Gullander, Maria

AU - Kaerlev, Linda

AU - Persson, Roger

AU - Rugulies, Reiner

AU - Vammen, Marianne Agergaard

AU - Høgh, Annie

AU - Hansen, Åse Marie

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - BACKGROUND: Workplace stressors, such as bullying, are strongly related to subsequent long-term sickness absence, but little is known of the possible physiological mechanisms linking workplace stressors and sickness absence. The primary aim of this study was to investigate to what extent cortisol levels were associated with subsequent sickness absence and if cortisol mediated the association between workplace bullying and sickness absence. We additionally investigated possible bidirectional associations between bullying, cortisol, and long-term sickness absence.METHODS: Participants came from two Danish cohort studies, the "Psychosocial RIsk factors for Stress and MEntal disease" (PRISME) cohort and the "Workplace Bullying and Harassment" (WBH) cohort (n = 5418). Information about exposure to workplace bullying and morning and evening salivary cortisol was collected at three time points with approximately two years in between. After each data collection, all participants were followed for two years in registers, and cases with long-term sickness absence lasting 30 or more consecutive days were identified. The association between cortisol levels and subsequent sickness absence was assessed by logistic regression, while the extent to which the association between bullying and sickness absence was mediated by cortisol was quantified through natural direct and indirect effects.RESULTS: High evening cortisol was associated with a decreased risk of sickness absence (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68-0.99), but we did not find that high morning cortisol levels (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.81-1.18) or high morning-to-evening slope (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.82-1.18) were associated with subsequent sickness absence. We also tested for reverse causation and found that long-term sickness absence, but not salivary cortisol, was a strong risk factor for subsequent workplace bullying. There was no indication that cortisol mediated the association between workplace bullying and sickness absence.CONCLUSION: We found no straightforward and simple association between cortisol and long-term sickness absence. Furthermore, the association between workplace bullying and long-term sickness absence was not mediated by cortisol.

AB - BACKGROUND: Workplace stressors, such as bullying, are strongly related to subsequent long-term sickness absence, but little is known of the possible physiological mechanisms linking workplace stressors and sickness absence. The primary aim of this study was to investigate to what extent cortisol levels were associated with subsequent sickness absence and if cortisol mediated the association between workplace bullying and sickness absence. We additionally investigated possible bidirectional associations between bullying, cortisol, and long-term sickness absence.METHODS: Participants came from two Danish cohort studies, the "Psychosocial RIsk factors for Stress and MEntal disease" (PRISME) cohort and the "Workplace Bullying and Harassment" (WBH) cohort (n = 5418). Information about exposure to workplace bullying and morning and evening salivary cortisol was collected at three time points with approximately two years in between. After each data collection, all participants were followed for two years in registers, and cases with long-term sickness absence lasting 30 or more consecutive days were identified. The association between cortisol levels and subsequent sickness absence was assessed by logistic regression, while the extent to which the association between bullying and sickness absence was mediated by cortisol was quantified through natural direct and indirect effects.RESULTS: High evening cortisol was associated with a decreased risk of sickness absence (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68-0.99), but we did not find that high morning cortisol levels (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.81-1.18) or high morning-to-evening slope (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.82-1.18) were associated with subsequent sickness absence. We also tested for reverse causation and found that long-term sickness absence, but not salivary cortisol, was a strong risk factor for subsequent workplace bullying. There was no indication that cortisol mediated the association between workplace bullying and sickness absence.CONCLUSION: We found no straightforward and simple association between cortisol and long-term sickness absence. Furthermore, the association between workplace bullying and long-term sickness absence was not mediated by cortisol.

KW - Journal Article

U2 - 10.1186/s12889-017-4716-7

DO - 10.1186/s12889-017-4716-7

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 28915867

VL - 17

JO - B M C Public Health

JF - B M C Public Health

SN - 1471-2458

M1 - 710

ER -