The association between Generalized Joint Hypermobility and shoulder mobility in young, competitive swimmers

Hans Kromann Knudsen, Tina Junge

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Abstrakt

The association between Generalized Joint Hypermobility and
shoulder mobility in young, competitive swimmers.
Junge, T.1, 2, 3, Henriksen, P. 2, 4, Knudsen, H.K.1, Juul-Kristensen, B.3, 4

1Institute of Regional Health Services, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark
2Department of Physiotherapy, University College Lillebaelt, Odense, Denmark
3Health Sciences Research Centre, University College Lillebaelt, Odense, Denmark
4Inter-Faculty Educational Resources, University College Lillebaelt, Odense, Denmark
5Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark
6Institute of Occupational Therapy, Physiotherapy and Radiography, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway


Introduction
Shoulder overuse injuries frequently occur among competitive swimmers (Wanivenhaus et al, 2012), however, the aetiology of shoulder dysfunction remains unclear (Zemek et al., 1995). Increased shoulder mobility as well as Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH), are both suggested being predisposing risk factors for shoulder injuries (Pink et al., 2000, Zemek et al., 1995). An association between GJH and shoulder mobility among young, competitive swimmers has not been studied. The aim of this study was firstly to evaluate the association between GJH and horizontal shoulder abduction (HSA) in young, competitive swimmers, and secondly to describe reference values for HSA among this group.

Methods
In total, 92 pain-free competitive swimmers (age 10-15 years) participated. GJH was evaluated by the Beighton test (BT) a 0-9 scoring system. GJH was classified at cut points ≥5/9, ≥6/9 and ≥7/9. Shoulder mobility was measured as HSA using an inclinometer in a standardized protocol format. A multiple regression analysis was used to reveal associations between GJH and horizontal shoulder abduction, adjusted for sex and age.

Results
Overall, significant associations between GJH and HSA were found. An increase in the BT score was positively associated with an increase of HSA, seen as an increased HSA of 3.9 degrees at BT cut point ≥5/9, 5.7 degrees at BT cut point ≥6/7 and 7.9 degrees at BT cut point ≥7/9. Normative values for HSA ranged from 40 to 52 degrees, with a trend towards decreasing HSA by increasing age.

Conclusion
In this study, a significant association was observed between GJH and HSA, as the horizontal shoulder abduction increased with increasing BT scores. The predictive validity of GJH and HSA with respect to shoulder injuries must be assessed in future studies.

References

Pink, M.M., Tibone, J.E. The painful shoulder in the swimming athlete. Orthop Clin North Am. 2000 Apr;31(2):247-61.

Wanivenhaus, F., Fox, A.J., Chaudhury, S., Rodeo, S.A. Epidemiology of injuries and prevention strategies in competitive swimmers. Sports Health. 2012 May;4(3):246-51.

Zemek, M.J., Magee, D.J. Comparison of glenohumeral joint laxity in elite and recreational swimmers. Clin J Sport Med. 1996 Jan;6(1):40-7.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
Publikationsdato2015
StatusUdgivet - 2015

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