Tap water contributions to plasma concentrations of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in a nationwide prospective cohort of U.S. women

Xindi C. Hu*, Andrea K. Tokranov, Jahred Liddie, Xianming Zhang, Philippe Grandjean, Jaime E. Hart, Francine Laden, Qi Sun, Leo W.Y. Yeung, Elsie M. Sunderland

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Resumé

BACKGROUND: Between 2013 and 2015, concentrations of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in public drinking water supplies serving at least six million individuals exceeded the level set forth in the health advisory established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Other than data reported for contaminated sites, no systematic or prospective data exist on the relative source contribution (RSC) of drinking water to human PFAS exposures.

OBJECTIVES: This study estimates the RSC of tap water to overall PFAS exposure among members of the general U.S.

POPULATION:

METHODS: We measured concentrations of 15 PFAS in home tap water samples collected in 1989-1990 from 225 participants in a nationwide prospective cohort of U.S. women: the Nurses' Health Study (NHS). We used a one-compartment toxicokinetic model to estimate plasma concentrations corresponding to tap water intake of PFAS. We compared modeled results with measured plasma PFAS concentrations among a subset of 110 NHS participants.

RESULTS: Tap water perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were statistically significant predictors of plasma concentrations among individuals who consumed [Formula: see text] cups of tap water per day. Modeled median contributions of tap water to measured plasma concentrations were: PFOA 12% (95% probability interval 11%-14%), PFNA 13% (8.7%-21%), linear perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (nPFOS) 2.2% (2.0%-2.5%), branched perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (brPFOS) 3.0% (2.5%-3.2%), and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) 34% (29%-39%). In five locations, comparisons of PFASs in community tap water collected in the period 2013-2016 with samples from 1989-1990 indicated increases in quantifiable PFAS and extractable organic fluorine (a proxy for unquantified PFAS).

CONCLUSIONS: Our results for 1989-1990 compare well with the default RSC of 20% used in risk assessments for legacy PFAS by many agencies. Future evaluation of drinking water exposures should incorporate emerging PFAS. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4093.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummer067006
TidsskriftEnvironmental Health Perspectives
Vol/bind127
Udgave nummer6
Antal sider11
ISSN0091-6765
DOI
StatusUdgivet - jun. 2019

Fingeraftryk

perfluorooctanoic acid
Nurses
United States Environmental Protection Agency
Fluorine
Water Supply
Health
Proxy
Women's Health
Drinking
perfluorooctane sulfonic acid
perfluorononanoic acid

Citer dette

Hu, Xindi C. ; Tokranov, Andrea K. ; Liddie, Jahred ; Zhang, Xianming ; Grandjean, Philippe ; Hart, Jaime E. ; Laden, Francine ; Sun, Qi ; Yeung, Leo W.Y. ; Sunderland, Elsie M. / Tap water contributions to plasma concentrations of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in a nationwide prospective cohort of U.S. women. I: Environmental Health Perspectives. 2019 ; Bind 127, Nr. 6.
@article{206c7dfbaf0f41b8b627be063ae3fde8,
title = "Tap water contributions to plasma concentrations of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in a nationwide prospective cohort of U.S. women",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Between 2013 and 2015, concentrations of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in public drinking water supplies serving at least six million individuals exceeded the level set forth in the health advisory established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Other than data reported for contaminated sites, no systematic or prospective data exist on the relative source contribution (RSC) of drinking water to human PFAS exposures.OBJECTIVES: This study estimates the RSC of tap water to overall PFAS exposure among members of the general U.S.POPULATION: METHODS: We measured concentrations of 15 PFAS in home tap water samples collected in 1989-1990 from 225 participants in a nationwide prospective cohort of U.S. women: the Nurses' Health Study (NHS). We used a one-compartment toxicokinetic model to estimate plasma concentrations corresponding to tap water intake of PFAS. We compared modeled results with measured plasma PFAS concentrations among a subset of 110 NHS participants.RESULTS: Tap water perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were statistically significant predictors of plasma concentrations among individuals who consumed [Formula: see text] cups of tap water per day. Modeled median contributions of tap water to measured plasma concentrations were: PFOA 12{\%} (95{\%} probability interval 11{\%}-14{\%}), PFNA 13{\%} (8.7{\%}-21{\%}), linear perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (nPFOS) 2.2{\%} (2.0{\%}-2.5{\%}), branched perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (brPFOS) 3.0{\%} (2.5{\%}-3.2{\%}), and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) 34{\%} (29{\%}-39{\%}). In five locations, comparisons of PFASs in community tap water collected in the period 2013-2016 with samples from 1989-1990 indicated increases in quantifiable PFAS and extractable organic fluorine (a proxy for unquantified PFAS).CONCLUSIONS: Our results for 1989-1990 compare well with the default RSC of 20{\%} used in risk assessments for legacy PFAS by many agencies. Future evaluation of drinking water exposures should incorporate emerging PFAS. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4093.",
author = "Hu, {Xindi C.} and Tokranov, {Andrea K.} and Jahred Liddie and Xianming Zhang and Philippe Grandjean and Hart, {Jaime E.} and Francine Laden and Qi Sun and Yeung, {Leo W.Y.} and Sunderland, {Elsie M.}",
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language = "English",
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Tap water contributions to plasma concentrations of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in a nationwide prospective cohort of U.S. women. / Hu, Xindi C.; Tokranov, Andrea K.; Liddie, Jahred; Zhang, Xianming; Grandjean, Philippe; Hart, Jaime E.; Laden, Francine; Sun, Qi; Yeung, Leo W.Y.; Sunderland, Elsie M.

I: Environmental Health Perspectives, Bind 127, Nr. 6, 067006, 06.2019.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Tap water contributions to plasma concentrations of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in a nationwide prospective cohort of U.S. women

AU - Hu, Xindi C.

AU - Tokranov, Andrea K.

AU - Liddie, Jahred

AU - Zhang, Xianming

AU - Grandjean, Philippe

AU - Hart, Jaime E.

AU - Laden, Francine

AU - Sun, Qi

AU - Yeung, Leo W.Y.

AU - Sunderland, Elsie M.

PY - 2019/6

Y1 - 2019/6

N2 - BACKGROUND: Between 2013 and 2015, concentrations of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in public drinking water supplies serving at least six million individuals exceeded the level set forth in the health advisory established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Other than data reported for contaminated sites, no systematic or prospective data exist on the relative source contribution (RSC) of drinking water to human PFAS exposures.OBJECTIVES: This study estimates the RSC of tap water to overall PFAS exposure among members of the general U.S.POPULATION: METHODS: We measured concentrations of 15 PFAS in home tap water samples collected in 1989-1990 from 225 participants in a nationwide prospective cohort of U.S. women: the Nurses' Health Study (NHS). We used a one-compartment toxicokinetic model to estimate plasma concentrations corresponding to tap water intake of PFAS. We compared modeled results with measured plasma PFAS concentrations among a subset of 110 NHS participants.RESULTS: Tap water perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were statistically significant predictors of plasma concentrations among individuals who consumed [Formula: see text] cups of tap water per day. Modeled median contributions of tap water to measured plasma concentrations were: PFOA 12% (95% probability interval 11%-14%), PFNA 13% (8.7%-21%), linear perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (nPFOS) 2.2% (2.0%-2.5%), branched perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (brPFOS) 3.0% (2.5%-3.2%), and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) 34% (29%-39%). In five locations, comparisons of PFASs in community tap water collected in the period 2013-2016 with samples from 1989-1990 indicated increases in quantifiable PFAS and extractable organic fluorine (a proxy for unquantified PFAS).CONCLUSIONS: Our results for 1989-1990 compare well with the default RSC of 20% used in risk assessments for legacy PFAS by many agencies. Future evaluation of drinking water exposures should incorporate emerging PFAS. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4093.

AB - BACKGROUND: Between 2013 and 2015, concentrations of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in public drinking water supplies serving at least six million individuals exceeded the level set forth in the health advisory established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Other than data reported for contaminated sites, no systematic or prospective data exist on the relative source contribution (RSC) of drinking water to human PFAS exposures.OBJECTIVES: This study estimates the RSC of tap water to overall PFAS exposure among members of the general U.S.POPULATION: METHODS: We measured concentrations of 15 PFAS in home tap water samples collected in 1989-1990 from 225 participants in a nationwide prospective cohort of U.S. women: the Nurses' Health Study (NHS). We used a one-compartment toxicokinetic model to estimate plasma concentrations corresponding to tap water intake of PFAS. We compared modeled results with measured plasma PFAS concentrations among a subset of 110 NHS participants.RESULTS: Tap water perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were statistically significant predictors of plasma concentrations among individuals who consumed [Formula: see text] cups of tap water per day. Modeled median contributions of tap water to measured plasma concentrations were: PFOA 12% (95% probability interval 11%-14%), PFNA 13% (8.7%-21%), linear perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (nPFOS) 2.2% (2.0%-2.5%), branched perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (brPFOS) 3.0% (2.5%-3.2%), and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) 34% (29%-39%). In five locations, comparisons of PFASs in community tap water collected in the period 2013-2016 with samples from 1989-1990 indicated increases in quantifiable PFAS and extractable organic fluorine (a proxy for unquantified PFAS).CONCLUSIONS: Our results for 1989-1990 compare well with the default RSC of 20% used in risk assessments for legacy PFAS by many agencies. Future evaluation of drinking water exposures should incorporate emerging PFAS. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4093.

U2 - 10.1289/EHP4093

DO - 10.1289/EHP4093

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 31170009

AN - SCOPUS:85067472608

VL - 127

JO - Environmental Health Perspectives

JF - Environmental Health Perspectives

SN - 0091-6765

IS - 6

M1 - 067006

ER -