Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects ∼1% of the Caucasian population. Over the last decades, the availability of biological drugs targeting the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor α, anti-TNF drugs, has improved the treatment of patients with RA. However, one-Third of the patients do not respond to the treatment. We wanted to evaluate the status of pharmacogenomics of anti-TNF treatment. We performed a PubMed literature search and all studies reporting original data on associations between genetic variants and anti-TNF treatment response in RA patients were included and results evaluated by meta-Analysis. In total, 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms were found to be associated with anti-TNF treatment response in RA (19 from genome-wide association studies and 6 from the meta-Analyses), and these map to genes involved in T cell function, NF? B and TNF signalling pathways (including CTCN5, TEC, PTPRC, FCGR2A, NFKBIB, FCGR2A, IRAK3). Explorative prediction analyses found that biomarkers for clinical treatment selection are not yet available.