This systematic review intends to identify how sustainable manufacturing research is contributing to the development of the Industry 4.0 agenda and for a broader understanding about the links between the Industry 4.0 and Sustainable Manufacturing by mapping and summarising existing research efforts, identifying research agendas, as well as gaps and opportunities for research development. A conceptual framework formed by the principles and technological pillars of Industry 4.0, sustainable manufacturing scope, opportunities previously identified, and sustainability dimensions, guided analysis of 35 papers from 2008–2018, selected by a systematic approach. Bibliometrics data and social network analysis complement results identifying how research is being organised and its respective research agendas, relevant publications, and status of the research lifecycle. Results point to that the current research is aligned with the goals defined by different national industrial programs. There are, however, research gaps and opportunities for field development, becoming more mature and having a significant contribution to fully developing the agenda of Industry 4.0.