Surface-modified functionalized polycaprolactone scaffolds for bone repair: In vitro and in vivo experiments

Jonas Jensen, Jan Hendrik Duedal Rolfing, Dang Quang Svend Le, Asger Albæk Kristiansen, Jens Vinge Nygaard, Lea Bjerre Hokland, Michael Bendtsen, Moustapha Kassem, Helle Lysdahl, Cody Eric Bunger

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A porcine calvaria defect study was carried out to investigate the bone repair potential of three-dimensional (3D)-printed poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) scaffolds embedded with nanoporous PCL. A microscopic grid network was created by rapid prototyping making a 3D-fused deposition model (FDM-PCL). Afterward, the FDM-PCL scaffolds were infused with a mixture of PCL, water, and 1,4-dioxane and underwent a thermal-induced phase separation (TIPS) followed by lyophilization. The TIPS process lead to a nanoporous structure shielded by the printed microstructure (NSP-PCL). Sixteen Landrace pigs were divided into two groups with 8 and 12 weeks follow-up, respectively. A total of six nonpenetrating holes were drilled in the calvaria of each animal. The size of the cylindrical defects was h 10 mm and Ø 10 mm. The defects were distributed randomly using following groups: (a) NSP-PCL scaffold, (b) FDM-PCL scaffold, (c) autograft, (d) empty defect, (a1) NSP-PCL scaffold + autologous mononuclear cells, and (a2) NSP-PCL scaffold + bone morphogenetic protein 2. Bone volume to total volume was analyzed using microcomputed tomography (µCT) and histomorphometry. The µCT and histological data showed significantly less bone formation in the NSP-PCL scaffolds in all three variations after both 8 and 12 weeks compared to all other groups. The positive autograft control had significantly higher new bone formation compared to all other groups except the FDM-PCL when analyzed using histomorphometry. The NSP-PCL scaffolds were heavily infiltrated with foreign body giant cells suggesting an inflammatory response and perhaps active resorption of the scaffold material. The unmodified FDM-PCL scaffold showed good osteoconductivity and osseointegration after both 8 and 12 weeks.
TidsskriftJournal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Udgave nummer9
Sider (fra-til)2993-3003
Antal sider11
StatusUdgivet - sep. 2014



Jensen, J., Rolfing, J. H. D., Svend Le, D. Q., Kristiansen, A. A., Nygaard, J. V., Bjerre Hokland, L., Bendtsen, M., Kassem, M., Lysdahl, H., & Bunger, C. E. (2014). Surface-modified functionalized polycaprolactone scaffolds for bone repair: In vitro and in vivo experiments. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A, 102(9), 2993-3003. [24123983].