Due to the emergence of highly pathogenic and oseltamivir-resistant influenza viruses, there is an urgent need to develop new anti-influenza agents. Herein, five subseries of oseltamivir derivatives were designed and synthesized to improve their activity toward drug-resistant viral strains by further exploiting the 150-cavity in the neuraminidases (NAs). The bioassay results showed that compound 21h exhibited antiviral activities similar to or better than those of oseltamivir carboxylate (OSC) against H5N1, H5N2, H5N6, and H5N8. Besides, 21h was 5- to 86-fold more potent than OSC toward N1, N8, and N1-H274Y mutant NAs in the inhibitory assays. Computational studies provided a plausible rationale for the high potency of 21h against group-1 and N1-H274Y NAs. In addition, 21h demonstrated acceptable oral bioavailability, low acute toxicity, potent antiviral activity in vivo, and high metabolic stability. Overall, the above excellent profiles make 21h a promising drug candidate for the treatment of influenza virus infection.