Stratification by Smoking Status Reveals an Association of CHRNA5-A3-B4 Genotype with Body Mass Index in Never Smokers

Amy E Taylor, Richard W Morris, Meg E Fluharty, Johan H Bjorngaard, Bjørn Olav Asvold, Maiken E Gabrielsen, Archie Campbell, Riccardo Marioni, Meena Kumari, Jenni Hällfors, Satu Männistö, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Marika Kaakinen, Alana Cavadino, Iris Postmus, Lise Lotte N Husemoen, Tea Skaaby, Tarunveer S Ahluwalia, Jorien L Treur, Gonneke WillemsenCaroline Dale, S Goya Wannamethee, Jari Lahti, Aarno Palotie, Katri Räikkönen, Aliaksei Kisialiou, Alex McConnachie, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Andrew Wong, Christine Dalgård, Lavinia Paternoster, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Jessica Tyrrell, John Horwood, David M Fergusson, Martin A Kennedy, Tim Frayling, Ellen A Nohr, Lene Christiansen, Kirsten Ohm Kyvik, Diana Kuh, Graham Watt, Johan Eriksson, Peter H Whincup, Jacqueline M Vink, Dorret I Boomsma, George Davey Smith, Debbie Lawlor, Allan Linneberg, Ian Ford, J Wouter Jukema, Christine Power, Elina Hyppönen, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Martin Preisig, Katja Borodulin, Jaakko Kaprio, Mika Kivimaki, Blair H Smith, Caroline Hayward, Pål R Romundstad, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Marcus R Munafò, Naveed Sattar

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Resumé

We previously used a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster associated with heaviness of smoking within smokers to confirm the causal effect of smoking in reducing body mass index (BMI) in a Mendelian randomisation analysis. While seeking to extend these findings in a larger sample we found that this SNP is associated with 0.74% lower body mass index (BMI) per minor allele in current smokers (95% CI -0.97 to -0.51, P = 2.00×10-10), but also unexpectedly found that it was associated with 0.35% higher BMI in never smokers (95% CI +0.18 to +0.52, P = 6.38×10-5). An interaction test confirmed that these estimates differed from each other (P = 4.95×10-13). This difference in effects suggests the variant influences BMI both via pathways unrelated to smoking, and via the weight-reducing effects of smoking. It would therefore be essentially undetectable in an unstratified genome-wide association study of BMI, given the opposite association with BMI in never and current smokers. This demonstrates that novel associations may be obscured by hidden population sub-structure. Stratification on well-characterized environmental factors known to impact on health outcomes may therefore reveal novel genetic associations.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummere1004799
TidsskriftP L o S Genetics
Vol/bind10
Udgave nummer12
ISSN1553-7390
DOI
StatusUdgivet - dec. 2014

Fingeraftryk

smoking
body mass
body mass index
Body Mass Index
stratification
genotype
Smoking
Mendelian Randomization Analysis
single nucleotide polymorphism
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
polymorphism
Genome-Wide Association Study
multigene family
index
allele
environmental factor
genome
Alleles
alleles
Weights and Measures

Citer dette

Taylor, A. E., Morris, R. W., Fluharty, M. E., Bjorngaard, J. H., Asvold, B. O., Gabrielsen, M. E., ... Sattar, N. (2014). Stratification by Smoking Status Reveals an Association of CHRNA5-A3-B4 Genotype with Body Mass Index in Never Smokers. P L o S Genetics, 10(12), [e1004799]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004799
Taylor, Amy E ; Morris, Richard W ; Fluharty, Meg E ; Bjorngaard, Johan H ; Asvold, Bjørn Olav ; Gabrielsen, Maiken E ; Campbell, Archie ; Marioni, Riccardo ; Kumari, Meena ; Hällfors, Jenni ; Männistö, Satu ; Marques-Vidal, Pedro ; Kaakinen, Marika ; Cavadino, Alana ; Postmus, Iris ; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N ; Skaaby, Tea ; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S ; Treur, Jorien L ; Willemsen, Gonneke ; Dale, Caroline ; Wannamethee, S Goya ; Lahti, Jari ; Palotie, Aarno ; Räikkönen, Katri ; Kisialiou, Aliaksei ; McConnachie, Alex ; Padmanabhan, Sandosh ; Wong, Andrew ; Dalgård, Christine ; Paternoster, Lavinia ; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav ; Tyrrell, Jessica ; Horwood, John ; Fergusson, David M ; Kennedy, Martin A ; Frayling, Tim ; Nohr, Ellen A ; Christiansen, Lene ; Ohm Kyvik, Kirsten ; Kuh, Diana ; Watt, Graham ; Eriksson, Johan ; Whincup, Peter H ; Vink, Jacqueline M ; Boomsma, Dorret I ; Davey Smith, George ; Lawlor, Debbie ; Linneberg, Allan ; Ford, Ian ; Jukema, J Wouter ; Power, Christine ; Hyppönen, Elina ; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta ; Preisig, Martin ; Borodulin, Katja ; Kaprio, Jaakko ; Kivimaki, Mika ; Smith, Blair H ; Hayward, Caroline ; Romundstad, Pål R ; Sørensen, Thorkild I A ; Munafò, Marcus R ; Sattar, Naveed. / Stratification by Smoking Status Reveals an Association of CHRNA5-A3-B4 Genotype with Body Mass Index in Never Smokers. I: P L o S Genetics. 2014 ; Bind 10, Nr. 12.
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title = "Stratification by Smoking Status Reveals an Association of CHRNA5-A3-B4 Genotype with Body Mass Index in Never Smokers",
abstract = "We previously used a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster associated with heaviness of smoking within smokers to confirm the causal effect of smoking in reducing body mass index (BMI) in a Mendelian randomisation analysis. While seeking to extend these findings in a larger sample we found that this SNP is associated with 0.74{\%} lower body mass index (BMI) per minor allele in current smokers (95{\%} CI -0.97 to -0.51, P = 2.00×10-10), but also unexpectedly found that it was associated with 0.35{\%} higher BMI in never smokers (95{\%} CI +0.18 to +0.52, P = 6.38×10-5). An interaction test confirmed that these estimates differed from each other (P = 4.95×10-13). This difference in effects suggests the variant influences BMI both via pathways unrelated to smoking, and via the weight-reducing effects of smoking. It would therefore be essentially undetectable in an unstratified genome-wide association study of BMI, given the opposite association with BMI in never and current smokers. This demonstrates that novel associations may be obscured by hidden population sub-structure. Stratification on well-characterized environmental factors known to impact on health outcomes may therefore reveal novel genetic associations.",
author = "Taylor, {Amy E} and Morris, {Richard W} and Fluharty, {Meg E} and Bjorngaard, {Johan H} and Asvold, {Bj{\o}rn Olav} and Gabrielsen, {Maiken E} and Archie Campbell and Riccardo Marioni and Meena Kumari and Jenni H{\"a}llfors and Satu M{\"a}nnist{\"o} and Pedro Marques-Vidal and Marika Kaakinen and Alana Cavadino and Iris Postmus and Husemoen, {Lise Lotte N} and Tea Skaaby and Ahluwalia, {Tarunveer S} and Treur, {Jorien L} and Gonneke Willemsen and Caroline Dale and Wannamethee, {S Goya} and Jari Lahti and Aarno Palotie and Katri R{\"a}ikk{\"o}nen and Aliaksei Kisialiou and Alex McConnachie and Sandosh Padmanabhan and Andrew Wong and Christine Dalg{\aa}rd and Lavinia Paternoster and Yoav Ben-Shlomo and Jessica Tyrrell and John Horwood and Fergusson, {David M} and Kennedy, {Martin A} and Tim Frayling and Nohr, {Ellen A} and Lene Christiansen and {Ohm Kyvik}, Kirsten and Diana Kuh and Graham Watt and Johan Eriksson and Whincup, {Peter H} and Vink, {Jacqueline M} and Boomsma, {Dorret I} and {Davey Smith}, George and Debbie Lawlor and Allan Linneberg and Ian Ford and Jukema, {J Wouter} and Christine Power and Elina Hypp{\"o}nen and Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin and Martin Preisig and Katja Borodulin and Jaakko Kaprio and Mika Kivimaki and Smith, {Blair H} and Caroline Hayward and Romundstad, {P{\aa}l R} and S{\o}rensen, {Thorkild I A} and Munaf{\`o}, {Marcus R} and Naveed Sattar",
year = "2014",
month = "12",
doi = "10.1371/journal.pgen.1004799",
language = "English",
volume = "10",
journal = "P L o S Genetics",
issn = "1553-7390",
publisher = "Public Library of Science",
number = "12",

}

Taylor, AE, Morris, RW, Fluharty, ME, Bjorngaard, JH, Asvold, BO, Gabrielsen, ME, Campbell, A, Marioni, R, Kumari, M, Hällfors, J, Männistö, S, Marques-Vidal, P, Kaakinen, M, Cavadino, A, Postmus, I, Husemoen, LLN, Skaaby, T, Ahluwalia, TS, Treur, JL, Willemsen, G, Dale, C, Wannamethee, SG, Lahti, J, Palotie, A, Räikkönen, K, Kisialiou, A, McConnachie, A, Padmanabhan, S, Wong, A, Dalgård, C, Paternoster, L, Ben-Shlomo, Y, Tyrrell, J, Horwood, J, Fergusson, DM, Kennedy, MA, Frayling, T, Nohr, EA, Christiansen, L, Ohm Kyvik, K, Kuh, D, Watt, G, Eriksson, J, Whincup, PH, Vink, JM, Boomsma, DI, Davey Smith, G, Lawlor, D, Linneberg, A, Ford, I, Jukema, JW, Power, C, Hyppönen, E, Jarvelin, M-R, Preisig, M, Borodulin, K, Kaprio, J, Kivimaki, M, Smith, BH, Hayward, C, Romundstad, PR, Sørensen, TIA, Munafò, MR & Sattar, N 2014, 'Stratification by Smoking Status Reveals an Association of CHRNA5-A3-B4 Genotype with Body Mass Index in Never Smokers', P L o S Genetics, bind 10, nr. 12, e1004799. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004799

Stratification by Smoking Status Reveals an Association of CHRNA5-A3-B4 Genotype with Body Mass Index in Never Smokers. / Taylor, Amy E; Morris, Richard W; Fluharty, Meg E; Bjorngaard, Johan H; Asvold, Bjørn Olav; Gabrielsen, Maiken E; Campbell, Archie; Marioni, Riccardo; Kumari, Meena; Hällfors, Jenni; Männistö, Satu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Kaakinen, Marika; Cavadino, Alana; Postmus, Iris; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Skaaby, Tea; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Treur, Jorien L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Dale, Caroline; Wannamethee, S Goya; Lahti, Jari; Palotie, Aarno; Räikkönen, Katri; Kisialiou, Aliaksei; McConnachie, Alex; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Wong, Andrew; Dalgård, Christine; Paternoster, Lavinia; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Tyrrell, Jessica; Horwood, John; Fergusson, David M; Kennedy, Martin A; Frayling, Tim; Nohr, Ellen A; Christiansen, Lene; Ohm Kyvik, Kirsten; Kuh, Diana; Watt, Graham; Eriksson, Johan; Whincup, Peter H; Vink, Jacqueline M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Davey Smith, George; Lawlor, Debbie; Linneberg, Allan; Ford, Ian; Jukema, J Wouter; Power, Christine; Hyppönen, Elina; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Preisig, Martin; Borodulin, Katja; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kivimaki, Mika; Smith, Blair H; Hayward, Caroline; Romundstad, Pål R; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Munafò, Marcus R; Sattar, Naveed.

I: P L o S Genetics, Bind 10, Nr. 12, e1004799, 12.2014.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Stratification by Smoking Status Reveals an Association of CHRNA5-A3-B4 Genotype with Body Mass Index in Never Smokers

AU - Taylor, Amy E

AU - Morris, Richard W

AU - Fluharty, Meg E

AU - Bjorngaard, Johan H

AU - Asvold, Bjørn Olav

AU - Gabrielsen, Maiken E

AU - Campbell, Archie

AU - Marioni, Riccardo

AU - Kumari, Meena

AU - Hällfors, Jenni

AU - Männistö, Satu

AU - Marques-Vidal, Pedro

AU - Kaakinen, Marika

AU - Cavadino, Alana

AU - Postmus, Iris

AU - Husemoen, Lise Lotte N

AU - Skaaby, Tea

AU - Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S

AU - Treur, Jorien L

AU - Willemsen, Gonneke

AU - Dale, Caroline

AU - Wannamethee, S Goya

AU - Lahti, Jari

AU - Palotie, Aarno

AU - Räikkönen, Katri

AU - Kisialiou, Aliaksei

AU - McConnachie, Alex

AU - Padmanabhan, Sandosh

AU - Wong, Andrew

AU - Dalgård, Christine

AU - Paternoster, Lavinia

AU - Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

AU - Tyrrell, Jessica

AU - Horwood, John

AU - Fergusson, David M

AU - Kennedy, Martin A

AU - Frayling, Tim

AU - Nohr, Ellen A

AU - Christiansen, Lene

AU - Ohm Kyvik, Kirsten

AU - Kuh, Diana

AU - Watt, Graham

AU - Eriksson, Johan

AU - Whincup, Peter H

AU - Vink, Jacqueline M

AU - Boomsma, Dorret I

AU - Davey Smith, George

AU - Lawlor, Debbie

AU - Linneberg, Allan

AU - Ford, Ian

AU - Jukema, J Wouter

AU - Power, Christine

AU - Hyppönen, Elina

AU - Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta

AU - Preisig, Martin

AU - Borodulin, Katja

AU - Kaprio, Jaakko

AU - Kivimaki, Mika

AU - Smith, Blair H

AU - Hayward, Caroline

AU - Romundstad, Pål R

AU - Sørensen, Thorkild I A

AU - Munafò, Marcus R

AU - Sattar, Naveed

PY - 2014/12

Y1 - 2014/12

N2 - We previously used a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster associated with heaviness of smoking within smokers to confirm the causal effect of smoking in reducing body mass index (BMI) in a Mendelian randomisation analysis. While seeking to extend these findings in a larger sample we found that this SNP is associated with 0.74% lower body mass index (BMI) per minor allele in current smokers (95% CI -0.97 to -0.51, P = 2.00×10-10), but also unexpectedly found that it was associated with 0.35% higher BMI in never smokers (95% CI +0.18 to +0.52, P = 6.38×10-5). An interaction test confirmed that these estimates differed from each other (P = 4.95×10-13). This difference in effects suggests the variant influences BMI both via pathways unrelated to smoking, and via the weight-reducing effects of smoking. It would therefore be essentially undetectable in an unstratified genome-wide association study of BMI, given the opposite association with BMI in never and current smokers. This demonstrates that novel associations may be obscured by hidden population sub-structure. Stratification on well-characterized environmental factors known to impact on health outcomes may therefore reveal novel genetic associations.

AB - We previously used a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster associated with heaviness of smoking within smokers to confirm the causal effect of smoking in reducing body mass index (BMI) in a Mendelian randomisation analysis. While seeking to extend these findings in a larger sample we found that this SNP is associated with 0.74% lower body mass index (BMI) per minor allele in current smokers (95% CI -0.97 to -0.51, P = 2.00×10-10), but also unexpectedly found that it was associated with 0.35% higher BMI in never smokers (95% CI +0.18 to +0.52, P = 6.38×10-5). An interaction test confirmed that these estimates differed from each other (P = 4.95×10-13). This difference in effects suggests the variant influences BMI both via pathways unrelated to smoking, and via the weight-reducing effects of smoking. It would therefore be essentially undetectable in an unstratified genome-wide association study of BMI, given the opposite association with BMI in never and current smokers. This demonstrates that novel associations may be obscured by hidden population sub-structure. Stratification on well-characterized environmental factors known to impact on health outcomes may therefore reveal novel genetic associations.

U2 - 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004799

DO - 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004799

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 25474695

VL - 10

JO - P L o S Genetics

JF - P L o S Genetics

SN - 1553-7390

IS - 12

M1 - e1004799

ER -