Background: Dogs develop spontaneous ischaemic stroke with a clinical picture closely resembling human ischaemic stroke patients. Animal stroke models have been developed, but it has proved difficult to translate results obtained from such models into successful therapeutic strategies in human stroke patients. In order to face this apparent translational gap within stroke research, dogs with ischaemic stroke constitute an opportunity to study the neuropathology of ischaemic stroke in an animal species. Case presentation: A 7 years and 8 months old female neutered Rottweiler dog suffered a middle cerebral artery infarct and was euthanized 3 days after onset of neurological signs. The brain was subjected to histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Neuropathological changes were characterised by a pan-necrotic infarct surrounded by peri-infarct injured neurons and reactive microglia/macrophages and astrocytes. Conclusions: The neuropathological changes reported in the present study were similar to findings in human patients with ischaemic stroke. The dog with spontaneous ischaemic stroke is of interest as a complementary spontaneous animal model for further neuropathological studies.