This review provides an overview of the perioperative safety concerns in pediatric anesthesia and exploration of strategies to minimize these risks through education and training in pediatric anesthesia. There is increasing human data on the effects of general anesthesia for surgery and procedures on later neurodevelopment. However, the magnitude and relevance of this remains unclear while the long-term outcomes from recent human studies are awaited. The current known and established risks associated with pediatric anesthesia can be minimized by establishing a robust and safe conduct of anesthesia. This not only includes maintenance of normal physiological variables but also other aspects such as reduction of preoperative fear and anxiety and postoperative care. This can be achieved through effective multidisciplinary team working, cross specialty training and further development of fellowships and secondments.