Summary: To evaluate the case-finding strategy for osteoporosis in Norway, a questionnaire concerning risk factors for osteoporosis and history of osteodensitometry was mailed to a population-based cohort of 6000 men and 6000 women. Suboptimal examination rates among high risk and reallocation of scanning capacity to seemingly low-risk individuals was found. Purpose: In Norway, a case-finding strategy for osteoporosis has been used. No data exist regarding the efficacy of this approach. The aim was to examine the prevalence of risk factors for osteoporosis and factors related to the use of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in Norway. Methods: Questionnaires regarding previous history of DXA, risk factors for osteoporosis and fracture were sent to an age-stratified, nationwide cross-sectional sample of 6000 men and 6000 women aged 40–90 years, drawn from the Norwegian Civil Registration System. Results: Valid responses (6029) were included. Twenty-two point three percent of women and 3.8 % of men had been examined by DXA. Suboptimal examination rates among high risk (e.g., current/previous glucocorticoid treatment or previous low-energy fracture) and reallocation of scanning capacity to seemingly low-risk individuals was found. Of all DXA, 19.5 % were reported by women without any risk factor for osteoporosis, similarly by 16.2 % of men. Distance to DXA facilities and current smoking were inversely related to probability of reporting a DXA. Conclusions: Suboptimal examination rates among high risk and reallocation of scanning capacity to seemingly low-risk individuals were found. Distance to DXA, current smoking, and male sex constituted possible barriers to the case-finding strategy employed. Cheap and more available diagnostic tools for osteoporosis are needed, and risk stratification tools should be employed more extensively.