The latest research progress on residual ultimate strength of metallic pipelines with structural damage is presented through literature survey. The investigated pipe diameter-to-thickness ratios majorly lie between 20 and 50, which are typically applicable in deep water. Influential parameters in terms of pipe load, installation process and material that affect the ultimate strength of pipes are categorised. Structural damage including dent, metal loss and crack is identified and efforts are made to summarise critical damage factors such as dent length and crack depth. Furthermore, research and prediction methods on pipe residual ultimate strength in terms of experimental tests, numerical simulations and analytical predictions are summarised and discussed. Specific details on how to introduce, simplify and simulate structural damage are presented and discussed. It is expected that the mechanism of residual ultimate strength of metallic pipes with structural damage can be clarified through this study so that guidance will be provided for researchers in this field.