Background: People with chronic renal disease are insulin resistant. We hypothesized that in a healthy population, baseline renal function is associated with insulin sensitivity three years later. Methods: We studied 405 men and 528 women from the European Group for the study of Insulin Resistance - Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular disease cohort. Renal function was characterized by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and by the urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR). At baseline only, insulin sensitivity was quantified using a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp; at baseline and three years, we used surrogate measures: the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (ISI), the HOmeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Sensitivity (HOMA-IS). Associations between renal function and insulin sensitivity were studied cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: In men at baseline, no associations were seen with eGFR, but there was some evidence of a positive association with UACR. In women, all insulin sensitivity indices showed the same negative trend across eGFR classes, albeit not always statistically significant; for UACR, women with values above the limit of detection, had higher clamp measured insulin sensitivity than other women. After three years, in men only, ISI and HOMA-IS showed a U-shaped relation with baseline eGFR; women with eGFR> 105 ml/min/1.73m2 had a significantly higher insulin sensitivity than the reference group (eGFR: 90-105 ml/min/1.73m2). For both men and women, year-3 insulin sensitivity was higher in those with higher baseline UACR. All associations were attenuated after adjusting on significant covariates. Conclusions: There was no evidence to support our hypothesis that markers of poorer renal function are associated with declining insulin sensitivity in our healthy population.