Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) by repetitive brief periods of limb ischemia and reperfusion renders organs more resistant to ischemic injury. The protection is partly through down-regulation of the inflammatory response. Our aim was to investigate the clinical and anti-inflammatory effects of RIC in patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC). We included 22 patients with active UC in this explorative, randomized, sham-controlled clinical trial. The patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to RIC (induced in the arm through four cycles of 5-min inflation and 5-min deflation of a blood-pressure cuff) or sham (incomplete inflation of the blood-pressure cuff) once daily for 10 days. Outcome variables were measured at baseline and on day 11. When compared with sham, RIC did not affect inflammation in the UC patients measured by fecal calprotectin, plasma C-reactive protein, Mayo Score, Mayo Endoscopic Subscore, Nancy Histological Index or inflammatory cytokines involved in UC and RIC. The mRNA and miRNA expression profiles in the UC patients were measured by RNA sequencing and multiplexed hybridization, respectively, but were not significantly affected by RIC. We used the Langendorff heart model to assess activation of the organ protective mechanism induced by RIC, but could not confirm activation of the organ protective mechanism in the UC patients.