Purpose: The diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) and oral polio vaccine (OPV) were introduced in children 3 of 5 months of age in 1981–1983 in Bandim, in the capital of Guinea-Bissau. Because DTP has been linked to deleterious nonspecific effects (NSEs) and OPV to beneficial NSEs, we followed up this cohort to 3 years of age and examined the effects of DTP with OPV on all-cause mortality and the interactions of DTP and OPV with the measles vaccine (MV). Methods: DTP and OPV were offered at 3 monthly community weighing sessions. Vaccination groups were defined by the last vaccine received. We compared overall mortality for different groups in Cox proportional hazards regression models, reporting hazards ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs. Findings: The study cohort included 1491 children born in Bandim from December 1980 to December 1983. From 3 to 35 months of age, with censoring for MV, children vaccinated with DTP and/or OPV had higher mortality than both unvaccinated children (HR = l.66; 95% CI, 1.03–2.69) and OPV-only vaccinated children (HR = 2.81; 95% CI, 1.02–7.69); DTP-only vaccinated children had higher mortality than OPV-only vaccinated children (HR = 3.38; 95% CI, 1.15-–9.93). In the age group of 3–8 months, before MV is administered, DTP-only vaccination was associated with a higher mortality than DTP with OPV (HR = 3.38; 95% CI, 1.59–7.20). Between 9 and 35 months of age, when MV is given, DTP-vaccinated and MV-unvaccinated children had higher mortality (HR = 2.76; 95% CI, 1.36–5.59) than children who had received MV after DTP, and among children who received DTP with MV or after MV, DTP-only vaccination was associated with a higher mortality than DTP with OPV (HR = 6.25; 95% CI, 2.55–15.37). Implications: Because the 2 vaccines had differential effects and the healthiest children were vaccinated first, selection biases are unlikely to explain the estimated impact on child survival. OPV had beneficial NSEs, and administration of OPV with DTP may have reduced the negative effects of DTP.