Product and Metal Stocks Accumulation of China's Megacities: Patterns, Drivers, and Implications

Qiance Liu, Zhi Cao, Xiaojie Liu, Litao Liu, Tao Dai, Ji Han, Huabo Duan, Chang Wang, Heming Wang, Jun Liu, Guotian Cai, Ruichang Mao, Gaoshang Wang, Juan Tan, Shenggong Li, Gang Liu

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Resumé

The rapid urbanization in China since the 1970s has led to an exponential growth of metal stocks (MS) in use in cities. A retrospect on the quantity, quality, and patterns of these MS is a prerequisite for projecting future metal demand, identifying urban mining potentials of metals, and informing sustainable urbanization strategies. Here, we deployed a bottom-up stock accounting method to estimate stocks of iron, copper, and aluminum embodied in 51 categories of products and infrastructure across 10 Chinese megacities from 1980 to 2016. We found that the MS in Chinese megacities had reached a level of 2.6-6.3 t/cap (on average 3.7 t/cap for iron, 58 kg/cap for copper, and 151 kg/cap for aluminum) in 2016, which still remained behind the level of western cities or potential saturation level on the country level (e.g., approximately 13 t/cap for iron). Economic development was identified as the most powerful driver for MS growth based on an IPAT decomposition analysis, indicating further increase in MS as China's urbanization and economic growth continues in the next decades. The latecomer cities should therefore explore a wide range of strategies, from urban planning to economy structure to regulations, for a transition toward more "metal-efficient" urbanization pathways.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftEnvironmental Science & Technology
ISSN0013-936X
DOI
StatusE-pub ahead of print - 25 mar. 2019

Fingeraftryk

megacity
Metals
metal
urbanization
Iron
Aluminum
iron
Copper
aluminum
copper
decomposition analysis
Economics
Urban planning
product
urban planning
economic growth
economic development
infrastructure
saturation
Decomposition

Citer dette

Liu, Qiance ; Cao, Zhi ; Liu, Xiaojie ; Liu, Litao ; Dai, Tao ; Han, Ji ; Duan, Huabo ; Wang, Chang ; Wang, Heming ; Liu, Jun ; Cai, Guotian ; Mao, Ruichang ; Wang, Gaoshang ; Tan, Juan ; Li, Shenggong ; Liu, Gang. / Product and Metal Stocks Accumulation of China's Megacities : Patterns, Drivers, and Implications. I: Environmental Science & Technology. 2019.
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title = "Product and Metal Stocks Accumulation of China's Megacities: Patterns, Drivers, and Implications",
abstract = "The rapid urbanization in China since the 1970s has led to an exponential growth of metal stocks (MS) in use in cities. A retrospect on the quantity, quality, and patterns of these MS is a prerequisite for projecting future metal demand, identifying urban mining potentials of metals, and informing sustainable urbanization strategies. Here, we deployed a bottom-up stock accounting method to estimate stocks of iron, copper, and aluminum embodied in 51 categories of products and infrastructure across 10 Chinese megacities from 1980 to 2016. We found that the MS in Chinese megacities had reached a level of 2.6-6.3 t/cap (on average 3.7 t/cap for iron, 58 kg/cap for copper, and 151 kg/cap for aluminum) in 2016, which still remained behind the level of western cities or potential saturation level on the country level (e.g., approximately 13 t/cap for iron). Economic development was identified as the most powerful driver for MS growth based on an IPAT decomposition analysis, indicating further increase in MS as China's urbanization and economic growth continues in the next decades. The latecomer cities should therefore explore a wide range of strategies, from urban planning to economy structure to regulations, for a transition toward more {"}metal-efficient{"} urbanization pathways.",
author = "Qiance Liu and Zhi Cao and Xiaojie Liu and Litao Liu and Tao Dai and Ji Han and Huabo Duan and Chang Wang and Heming Wang and Jun Liu and Guotian Cai and Ruichang Mao and Gaoshang Wang and Juan Tan and Shenggong Li and Gang Liu",
year = "2019",
month = "3",
day = "25",
doi = "10.1021/acs.est.9b00387",
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Product and Metal Stocks Accumulation of China's Megacities : Patterns, Drivers, and Implications. / Liu, Qiance; Cao, Zhi; Liu, Xiaojie; Liu, Litao; Dai, Tao; Han, Ji; Duan, Huabo; Wang, Chang; Wang, Heming; Liu, Jun; Cai, Guotian; Mao, Ruichang; Wang, Gaoshang; Tan, Juan; Li, Shenggong; Liu, Gang.

I: Environmental Science & Technology, 25.03.2019.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Product and Metal Stocks Accumulation of China's Megacities

T2 - Patterns, Drivers, and Implications

AU - Liu, Qiance

AU - Cao, Zhi

AU - Liu, Xiaojie

AU - Liu, Litao

AU - Dai, Tao

AU - Han, Ji

AU - Duan, Huabo

AU - Wang, Chang

AU - Wang, Heming

AU - Liu, Jun

AU - Cai, Guotian

AU - Mao, Ruichang

AU - Wang, Gaoshang

AU - Tan, Juan

AU - Li, Shenggong

AU - Liu, Gang

PY - 2019/3/25

Y1 - 2019/3/25

N2 - The rapid urbanization in China since the 1970s has led to an exponential growth of metal stocks (MS) in use in cities. A retrospect on the quantity, quality, and patterns of these MS is a prerequisite for projecting future metal demand, identifying urban mining potentials of metals, and informing sustainable urbanization strategies. Here, we deployed a bottom-up stock accounting method to estimate stocks of iron, copper, and aluminum embodied in 51 categories of products and infrastructure across 10 Chinese megacities from 1980 to 2016. We found that the MS in Chinese megacities had reached a level of 2.6-6.3 t/cap (on average 3.7 t/cap for iron, 58 kg/cap for copper, and 151 kg/cap for aluminum) in 2016, which still remained behind the level of western cities or potential saturation level on the country level (e.g., approximately 13 t/cap for iron). Economic development was identified as the most powerful driver for MS growth based on an IPAT decomposition analysis, indicating further increase in MS as China's urbanization and economic growth continues in the next decades. The latecomer cities should therefore explore a wide range of strategies, from urban planning to economy structure to regulations, for a transition toward more "metal-efficient" urbanization pathways.

AB - The rapid urbanization in China since the 1970s has led to an exponential growth of metal stocks (MS) in use in cities. A retrospect on the quantity, quality, and patterns of these MS is a prerequisite for projecting future metal demand, identifying urban mining potentials of metals, and informing sustainable urbanization strategies. Here, we deployed a bottom-up stock accounting method to estimate stocks of iron, copper, and aluminum embodied in 51 categories of products and infrastructure across 10 Chinese megacities from 1980 to 2016. We found that the MS in Chinese megacities had reached a level of 2.6-6.3 t/cap (on average 3.7 t/cap for iron, 58 kg/cap for copper, and 151 kg/cap for aluminum) in 2016, which still remained behind the level of western cities or potential saturation level on the country level (e.g., approximately 13 t/cap for iron). Economic development was identified as the most powerful driver for MS growth based on an IPAT decomposition analysis, indicating further increase in MS as China's urbanization and economic growth continues in the next decades. The latecomer cities should therefore explore a wide range of strategies, from urban planning to economy structure to regulations, for a transition toward more "metal-efficient" urbanization pathways.

U2 - 10.1021/acs.est.9b00387

DO - 10.1021/acs.est.9b00387

M3 - Journal article

JO - Environmental Science & Technology (Washington)

JF - Environmental Science & Technology (Washington)

SN - 0013-936X

ER -