PURPOSE: We examine the relationship between urine and stone cultures in a large cohort of patients undergoing percutaneous stone removal and compare the findings in infectious vs metabolic calculi.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 776 patients treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy who had preoperative urine cultures and intraoperative stone cultures were included in the study. Statistical analysis used chi-square or logistic fit analysis as appropriate.
RESULTS: Preoperative urine culture was positive in 352 patients (45.4%) and stone cultures were positive in 300 patients (38.7%). There were 75 patients (9.7%) with negative preoperative cultures who had positive stone cultures, and in patients with both cultures positive the organisms differed in 103 (13.3%). Gram-positive organisms predominated in preoperative urine and stone cultures.
CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative urine cultures in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy are unreliable as there is a discordance with intraoperative stone cultures in almost a quarter of cases. There has been a notable shift toward gram-positive organisms in this cohort of patients.