BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Our aim is to determine the 30-day postpartum surgical complications in women with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] who undergo a caesarian section rather than a vaginal delivery. METHODS: Using the Danish national registries, we established a study population of liveborn singleton births from January 1, 1997, through December 2015. We examined all mothers with IBD who had a caesarian section or a vaginal delivery. We examined 30-day maternal postpartum abdominal and perineal surgical outcomes and adjusted for multiple confounders. We examined acute versus elective caesarian sections and the effect of immunosuppressive therapies on outcomes. RESULTS: In women with IBD, 2.1% undergoing caesarian section [n = 3255] versus 0.3% undergoing vaginal delivery [n = 6425] had a surgical complication. Women with IBD who had a caesarian section were more likely to have small bowel and colon surgery (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 5.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.00-12.51). Similar results were found regardless of acute [aOR 4.51, 95% CI 1.48-13.76] or elective [aOR 6.52, 95% CI 2.45-17.33] caesarian section. The risk of surgery after caesarian section was increased regardless of immunosuppressive use [aOR with immunosuppressives 8.79, 95% CI 2.86-27.05; and aOR without immunosuppressives 4.49, 95% CI 1.74-11.58]. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of a surgical complication after caesarian section as compared with a vaginal delivery is increased in women with IBD, regardless of whether the caesarian is performed for acute or elective reasons and/or of immunosuppressive use before delivery. Due to this increased risk, physicians should perform a caesarian delivery as the exception rather than the rule.