Mouse adipocytes have been reported to release aldosterone and reduce endothelium-dependent relaxation. It is unknown whether perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) releases aldosterone in humans. The present experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that human PVAT releases aldosterone and induces endothelial dysfunction. Vascular reactivity was assessed in human internal mammary and renal segmental arteries obtained at surgery. The arteries were prepared with/without PVAT, and changes in isometric tension were measured in response to the vasoconstrictor thromboxane pro-stanoid receptor agonist U46619 and the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine. The effects of exogenous aldosterone and of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist eplerenone were determined. Aldosterone concentrations were measured by ELISA in conditioned media incubated with human adipose tissue with/without angiotensin II stimulation. Presence of aldosterone synthase and MR mRNA was examined in perirenal, abdominal, and mammary PVAT by PCR. U46619-induced tension and acetylcholine-induced relaxation were unaffected by exogenous and endogenous aldosterone (addition of aldosterone and MR blocker) in mammary and renal segmental arteries, both in the presence and absence of PVAT. Aldosterone release from incubated perivascular fat was not detectable. Aldosterone synthase expression was not consistently observed in human adipose tissues in contrast to that of MR. Thus, exogenous aldosterone does not affect vascular reactivity and endothelial function in ex vivo human arterial segments, and the tested human adipose tissues have no capacity to synthesize/ release aldosterone. In perspective, physiologically relevant effects of aldosterone on vascular function in humans are caused by systemic aldosterone originating from the adrenal gland.