Objective: This is the first randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled pilot trial to investigate the efficacy of pamidronate in reducing radiological and clinical disease activity in chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis (CNO). Method: Patients received pamidronate or placebo at baseline and weeks 12 and 24. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging was performed at baseline and weeks 12 and 36, and computed tomography of the anterior chest wall (ACW) at baseline and week 36. Radiological disease activity was systematically scored in the ACW and spine. Patient-reported outcomes [visual analogue scale (VAS) pain, VAS global health, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D), and 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36)] and biomarkers of bone turnover and inflammation were assessed at baseline and weeks 1, 4, 12, 24, and 36. Data are expressed as median [interquartile range]. Results: Fourteen patients were randomized and 12 were analysed. From baseline to week 36, the radiological disease activity score in the ACW decreased from 5 [4–7] to 2.5 [1–3] in the pamidronate group, but did not change in the placebo group (p = 0.04). From baseline to week 36, VAS pain and VAS global health tended to decrease more in the pamidronate than in the placebo group (p = 0.11, p = 0.08). Physical functioning (HAQ) and health-related quality of life (EQ-5D, SF-36) did not change. Biomarkers of bone turnover decreased only in the pamidronate group (p ≤ 0.02). Conclusion: Pamidronate may improve radiological and clinical disease activity in CNO. Methods to score radiological disease activity in adult CNO were suggested. Clinical Trials: NCT02594878.