BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: With daily, MR-guided online adapted radiotherapy (MRgART) it may be possible to reduce the PTV in pelvic RT. This study investigated the potential reduction in normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) of MRgART compared to standard radiotherapy for high-risk prostate cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients treated with 78 Gy to the prostate and 56 Gy to elective pelvic lymph nodes were included. VMAT plans were generated with standard clinical PTV margins. Additionally to the planning MR, patients had three MRI scans during treatment to simulate an MRgART. A reference plan with PTV margins determined for MRgART was created per patient and adapted to each of the following MRs. Adapted plans were warped to the planning MR for dose accumulation. The standard plan was rigidly registered to each adaptation MR before it was warped to the planning MR for dose accumulation. Dosimetric impact was compared by DVH analysis and potential clinical effects were assessed by NTCP modeling.
RESULTS: MRgART yielded statistically significant lower doses for the bladder wall, rectum and peritoneal cavity, compared to the standard RT, which translated into reduced median risks of urine incontinence (ΔNTCP 2.8%), urine voiding pain (ΔNTCP 2.8%) and acute gastrointestinal toxicity (ΔNTCP 17.4%). Mean population accumulated doses were as good or better for all investigated OAR when planned for MRgART as standard RT.
CONCLUSION: Online adapted radiotherapy may reduce the dose to organs at risk in high-risk prostate cancer patients, due to reduced PTV margins. This potentially translates to significant reductions in the risks of acute and late adverse effects.