One vaccine to counter many diseases? Modeling the economics of oral polio vaccine against child mortality and COVID-19

Angela Y. Chang*, Peter Aaby, Michael S. Avidan, Christine S. Benn, Stefano M. Bertozzi, Lawrence Blatt, Konstantin Chumakov, Shabaana A. Khader, Shyam Kottilil, Madhav Nekkar, Mihai G. Netea, Annie Sparrow, Dean T. Jamison

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Abstract

Introduction: Recent reviews summarize evidence that some vaccines have heterologous or non-specific effects (NSE), potentially offering protection against multiple pathogens. Numerous economic evaluations examine vaccines' pathogen-specific effects, but less than a handful focus on NSE. This paper addresses that gap by reporting economic evaluations of the NSE of oral polio vaccine (OPV) against under-five mortality and COVID-19. Materials and methods: We studied two settings: (1) reducing child mortality in a high-mortality setting (Guinea-Bissau) and (2) preventing COVID-19 in India. In the former, the intervention involves three annual campaigns in which children receive OPV incremental to routine immunization. In the latter, a susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered model was developed to estimate the population benefits of two scenarios, in which OPV would be co-administered alongside COVID-19 vaccines. Incremental cost-effectiveness and benefit-cost ratios were modeled for ranges of intervention effectiveness estimates to supplement the headline numbers and account for heterogeneity and uncertainty. Results: For child mortality, headline cost-effectiveness was $650 per child death averted. For COVID-19, assuming OPV had 20% effectiveness, incremental cost per death averted was $23,000–65,000 if it were administered simultaneously with a COVID-19 vaccine <200 days into a wave of the epidemic. If the COVID-19 vaccine availability were delayed, the cost per averted death would decrease to $2600–6100. Estimated benefit-to-cost ratios vary but are consistently high. Discussion: Economic evaluation suggests the potential of OPV to efficiently reduce child mortality in high mortality environments. Likewise, within a broad range of assumed effect sizes, OPV (or another vaccine with NSE) could play an economically attractive role against COVID-19 in countries facing COVID-19 vaccine delays. Funding: The contribution by DTJ was supported through grants from Trond Mohn Foundation (BFS2019MT02) and Norad (RAF-18/0009) through the Bergen Center for Ethics and Priority Setting.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummer967920
TidsskriftFrontiers in Public Health
Vol/bind10
Antal sider11
ISSN2296-2565
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 5. okt. 2022

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
The contribution by DJ was supported through grants from Trond Mohn Foundation (BFS2019MT02) and Norad (RAF-18/0009) through the Bergen Center for Ethics and Priority Setting.

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