Introduction: In persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS), little evidence exist on the effects of Alemtuzumab on physiological, physical, and cognitive function along with patient-reported outcomes, despite these domains are being rated as highly important. Therefore, our purpose was to perform a prospective observational study to examine these outlined outcomes during the first two years of Alemtuzumab treatment in pwMS. Methods: In n = 17 relapsing–remitting pwMS, physiological function [body composition; bone mineral content; muscle strength; aerobic capacity], physical function [6-min walk test (6MWT, primary outcome); timed 25 ft walk test (T25FWT); six spot step test (SSST); 9-step stair ascend (9SSA); timed up and go test (TUG); 5 × sit to stand test (5STS)], cognitive function [selective reminding test (SRT); symbol digit modalities test (SDMT)], and patient-reported outcomes [multiple sclerosis impact scale-29 (MSIS29); 12-item multiple sclerosis walking scale (MSWS12); modified fatigue impact scale (MFIS); hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS)] were assessed prior to Alemtuzumab treatment initiation as well as 3, 6, 12, and 24 months into the treatment. Results: Improvements were observed at 24-month follow-up in T25FWT (+ 8%), SSST (+ 10%), SDMT (+ 5.2 points, 53% improved more than the clinical cut-off score) and SRT, whereas the primary outcome 6MWT, and all other remaining outcomes, remained stable throughout the Alemtuzumab treatment period. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that Alemtuzumab treatment in relapsing–remitting pwMS can improve certain domains of physical function (short distance walking) and cognitive function (processing speed, memory), and furthermore stabilize physiological and physical function along with patient-reported outcomes. Trial registration: Registered at clinicaltrials.gov: NCT03806387.
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