Celiac disease (CD), a gluten-induced autoimmune disease, is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) among children. Unfortunately, it is often diagnosed in adulthood, which may lead to an increased risk of fragile bones. The aim of this systematic review was to report on BMD status among young adults newly diagnosed with CD, and to examine the effect of a gluten-free diet (GFD), nutritional supplements, such as vitamin D, or antiresorptive medications on BMD recovery. Databases searched were Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library up to July 2nd, 2020. Both observational studies and clinical trials were considered, if patients were newly diagnosed and between 20 and 35 years of age and reported on BMD. We critically appraised the identified studies using ROBINS-I and summarized the findings narratively. Out of 3991 references, we identified 3 eligible studies: one cross-sectional study and two longitudinal studies. In total, 188 patients were included, and the study population consisted primarily of women with an age range between 29 and 37 years old. Compared to healthy controls, our target population had lower BMD. Moreover, a strict GFD may increase BMD during a follow-up period of up to 5 years. Newly diagnosed CD patients aged 20–35 years are at risk of lower BMD. Therefore, it may be crucial to assess BMD at time of diagnosis in young women. Whether the results can be extrapolated to young men is unknown. While strict GFD may improve BMD over time, there is a lack of robust evidence to demonstrate that nutritional supplements or antiresorptive agents are beneficial in the prevention of fragile bones in this age group.
Bibliografisk noteFunding Information:
This research did not receive any specific Grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. The Parker Institute, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, is supported by a core grant from the Oak Foundation (OCAY-18-774-OFIL).