Since its initial reports in the 19th century, neuromyelitis optica (NMO) had been thought to involve only the optic nerves and spinal cord. However, the discovery of highly specific anti-aquaporin-4 antibody diagnostic biomarker for NMO enabled recognition of more diverse clinical spectrum of manifestations. Brain MRI abnormalities in patients seropositive for anti-aquaporin-4 antibody are common and some may be relatively unique by virtue of localization and configuration. Some seropositive patients present with brain involvement during their first attack and/or continue to relapse in the same location without optic nerve and spinal cord involvement. Thus, characteristics of brain abnormalities in such patients have become of increased interest. In this regard, MRI has an increasingly important role in the differential diagnosis of NMO and its spectrum disorder (NMOSD), particularly from multiple sclerosis. Differentiating these conditions is of prime importance because early initiation of effective immunosuppressive therapy is the key to preventing attack-related disability in NMOSD, whereas some disease-modifying drugs for multiple sclerosis may exacerbate the disease. Therefore, identifying the MRI features suggestive of NMOSD has diagnostic and prognostic implications. We herein review the brain, optic nerve, and spinal cord MRI findings of NMOSD.
Bayer Schering Pharma; Biogen Idec; Genzyme; Kael-GemVax; Merck Serono; Novartis; Teva-Handok; UCB; German Research Council; German Ministry of Education and Research (Competence Network Multiple Sclerosis "KKNMS"); Guthy-Jackson Charitable Foundation; Biogen; Bayer; Teva; Merck; Sanofi; Bayer Schering; Roche; Bayer Healthcare; Genzyme Corporation; Teva Neuroscience; Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan; Ichiro Kanehara Foundation; German Ministry of Science (BMBF/KKNMS); Canadian MS Research Foundation; Canadian MS Society; CIHR; European Commission; Instituto Salud Carlos III; Marato TV3; Eisai Inc.; Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation; Novartis Pharma; Astellas Pharma Inc.; Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited; Asahi Kasei Medical Co.; Daiichi Sankyo; Nihon Pharmaceutical; Biogen Idec Japan; Asahi Kasei Medical; Chemo-Sero-Therapeutic Research Institute; Teva Pharmaceutical; Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma; Teijin Pharma; Chugai Pharmaceutical; Ono Pharmaceutical; Genzyme Japan; Ministry of Education, Science and Technology of Japan ; Ministry of Health, Welfare and Labor of Japan 10 25695963
- EXTENSIVE TRANSVERSE MYELITIS OLIGODENDROCYTE GLYCOPROTEIN ANTIBODIES CNS AQUAPORIN-4 AUTOIMMUNITY SPINAL-CORD LESIONS MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS BRAIN ABNORMALITIES ANTI-AQUAPORIN-4 ANTIBODY DIAGNOSTIC-CRITERIA IGG PREDICTS GRAY-MATTER