Mosaic MECP2 variants in males with classical Rett syndrome features, including stereotypical hand movements

Bitten Schönewolf-Greulich, Anne-Marie Bisgaard, Morten Dunø, Cathrine Jespersgaard, Mette Rokkjaer, Lars Kjaersgaard Hansen, Eirini Tsoutsou, Christalena Sofokleous, Meral Topcu, Simran Kaur, Nicole J Van Bergen, Karen Brøndum-Nielsen, Martin J Larsen, Kristina P Sørensen, John Christodoulou, Christina R Fagerberg, Zeynep Tümer

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Resumé

Rett syndrome is rarely suspected in males because of the X-linked dominant inheritance. In the literature, only six male patients have been reported with methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) mosaicism. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods have enabled better detection of somatic mosaicism compared to conventional Sanger sequencing; however, mosaics can still be difficult to detect. We present clinical and molecular findings in two males mosaic for a pathogenic MECP2 variant. Both have been reexamined using deep sequencing of DNA isolated from four different cell tissues (blood, muscle, fibroblasts and oral mucosa). Deep sequencing of the different tissues revealed that the variants were present in all tissues. In one patient, the molecular diagnosis could only be established by reexamination after a normal whole exome sequencing, and the other case is an example of reverse genetic diagnostics. Rett syndrome should be considered in males with neurodevelopmental delay and stereotypical hand movements. Subsequent to clinical diagnosis males should be investigated with NGS-based technologies of MECP2 with high read depth and a low threshold for variant calls. If the initial analysis on full blood derived DNA fails to confirm the suspicion, we recommend repeating the analysis on another tissue, preferentially fibroblasts to increase the diagnostic yield.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftClinical Genetics
Vol/bind95
Udgave nummer3
Sider (fra-til)403-408
ISSN0009-9163
DOI
StatusUdgivet - mar. 2019

Fingeraftryk

Methyl-CpG-Binding Protein 2
Rett Syndrome
Mosaicism
Fibroblasts
Exome
Reverse Genetics
X-Linked Genes
DNA
Mouth Mucosa
Muscles

Bibliografisk note

© 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Citer dette

Schönewolf-Greulich, B., Bisgaard, A-M., Dunø, M., Jespersgaard, C., Rokkjaer, M., Hansen, L. K., ... Tümer, Z. (2019). Mosaic MECP2 variants in males with classical Rett syndrome features, including stereotypical hand movements. Clinical Genetics, 95(3), 403-408. https://doi.org/10.1111/cge.13473
Schönewolf-Greulich, Bitten ; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie ; Dunø, Morten ; Jespersgaard, Cathrine ; Rokkjaer, Mette ; Hansen, Lars Kjaersgaard ; Tsoutsou, Eirini ; Sofokleous, Christalena ; Topcu, Meral ; Kaur, Simran ; Van Bergen, Nicole J ; Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen ; Larsen, Martin J ; Sørensen, Kristina P ; Christodoulou, John ; Fagerberg, Christina R ; Tümer, Zeynep. / Mosaic MECP2 variants in males with classical Rett syndrome features, including stereotypical hand movements. I: Clinical Genetics. 2019 ; Bind 95, Nr. 3. s. 403-408.
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abstract = "Rett syndrome is rarely suspected in males because of the X-linked dominant inheritance. In the literature, only six male patients have been reported with methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) mosaicism. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods have enabled better detection of somatic mosaicism compared to conventional Sanger sequencing; however, mosaics can still be difficult to detect. We present clinical and molecular findings in two males mosaic for a pathogenic MECP2 variant. Both have been reexamined using deep sequencing of DNA isolated from four different cell tissues (blood, muscle, fibroblasts and oral mucosa). Deep sequencing of the different tissues revealed that the variants were present in all tissues. In one patient, the molecular diagnosis could only be established by reexamination after a normal whole exome sequencing, and the other case is an example of reverse genetic diagnostics. Rett syndrome should be considered in males with neurodevelopmental delay and stereotypical hand movements. Subsequent to clinical diagnosis males should be investigated with NGS-based technologies of MECP2 with high read depth and a low threshold for variant calls. If the initial analysis on full blood derived DNA fails to confirm the suspicion, we recommend repeating the analysis on another tissue, preferentially fibroblasts to increase the diagnostic yield.",
keywords = "MECP2, NGS, Rett syndrome, male, mosaicism",
author = "Bitten Sch{\"o}newolf-Greulich and Anne-Marie Bisgaard and Morten Dun{\o} and Cathrine Jespersgaard and Mette Rokkjaer and Hansen, {Lars Kjaersgaard} and Eirini Tsoutsou and Christalena Sofokleous and Meral Topcu and Simran Kaur and {Van Bergen}, {Nicole J} and Karen Br{\o}ndum-Nielsen and Larsen, {Martin J} and S{\o}rensen, {Kristina P} and John Christodoulou and Fagerberg, {Christina R} and Zeynep T{\"u}mer",
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year = "2019",
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Schönewolf-Greulich, B, Bisgaard, A-M, Dunø, M, Jespersgaard, C, Rokkjaer, M, Hansen, LK, Tsoutsou, E, Sofokleous, C, Topcu, M, Kaur, S, Van Bergen, NJ, Brøndum-Nielsen, K, Larsen, MJ, Sørensen, KP, Christodoulou, J, Fagerberg, CR & Tümer, Z 2019, 'Mosaic MECP2 variants in males with classical Rett syndrome features, including stereotypical hand movements', Clinical Genetics, bind 95, nr. 3, s. 403-408. https://doi.org/10.1111/cge.13473

Mosaic MECP2 variants in males with classical Rett syndrome features, including stereotypical hand movements. / Schönewolf-Greulich, Bitten; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Dunø, Morten; Jespersgaard, Cathrine; Rokkjaer, Mette; Hansen, Lars Kjaersgaard; Tsoutsou, Eirini; Sofokleous, Christalena; Topcu, Meral; Kaur, Simran; Van Bergen, Nicole J; Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen; Larsen, Martin J; Sørensen, Kristina P; Christodoulou, John; Fagerberg, Christina R; Tümer, Zeynep.

I: Clinical Genetics, Bind 95, Nr. 3, 03.2019, s. 403-408.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Mosaic MECP2 variants in males with classical Rett syndrome features, including stereotypical hand movements

AU - Schönewolf-Greulich, Bitten

AU - Bisgaard, Anne-Marie

AU - Dunø, Morten

AU - Jespersgaard, Cathrine

AU - Rokkjaer, Mette

AU - Hansen, Lars Kjaersgaard

AU - Tsoutsou, Eirini

AU - Sofokleous, Christalena

AU - Topcu, Meral

AU - Kaur, Simran

AU - Van Bergen, Nicole J

AU - Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen

AU - Larsen, Martin J

AU - Sørensen, Kristina P

AU - Christodoulou, John

AU - Fagerberg, Christina R

AU - Tümer, Zeynep

N1 - © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

PY - 2019/3

Y1 - 2019/3

N2 - Rett syndrome is rarely suspected in males because of the X-linked dominant inheritance. In the literature, only six male patients have been reported with methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) mosaicism. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods have enabled better detection of somatic mosaicism compared to conventional Sanger sequencing; however, mosaics can still be difficult to detect. We present clinical and molecular findings in two males mosaic for a pathogenic MECP2 variant. Both have been reexamined using deep sequencing of DNA isolated from four different cell tissues (blood, muscle, fibroblasts and oral mucosa). Deep sequencing of the different tissues revealed that the variants were present in all tissues. In one patient, the molecular diagnosis could only be established by reexamination after a normal whole exome sequencing, and the other case is an example of reverse genetic diagnostics. Rett syndrome should be considered in males with neurodevelopmental delay and stereotypical hand movements. Subsequent to clinical diagnosis males should be investigated with NGS-based technologies of MECP2 with high read depth and a low threshold for variant calls. If the initial analysis on full blood derived DNA fails to confirm the suspicion, we recommend repeating the analysis on another tissue, preferentially fibroblasts to increase the diagnostic yield.

AB - Rett syndrome is rarely suspected in males because of the X-linked dominant inheritance. In the literature, only six male patients have been reported with methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) mosaicism. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods have enabled better detection of somatic mosaicism compared to conventional Sanger sequencing; however, mosaics can still be difficult to detect. We present clinical and molecular findings in two males mosaic for a pathogenic MECP2 variant. Both have been reexamined using deep sequencing of DNA isolated from four different cell tissues (blood, muscle, fibroblasts and oral mucosa). Deep sequencing of the different tissues revealed that the variants were present in all tissues. In one patient, the molecular diagnosis could only be established by reexamination after a normal whole exome sequencing, and the other case is an example of reverse genetic diagnostics. Rett syndrome should be considered in males with neurodevelopmental delay and stereotypical hand movements. Subsequent to clinical diagnosis males should be investigated with NGS-based technologies of MECP2 with high read depth and a low threshold for variant calls. If the initial analysis on full blood derived DNA fails to confirm the suspicion, we recommend repeating the analysis on another tissue, preferentially fibroblasts to increase the diagnostic yield.

KW - MECP2

KW - NGS

KW - Rett syndrome

KW - male

KW - mosaicism

U2 - 10.1111/cge.13473

DO - 10.1111/cge.13473

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 30417326

VL - 95

SP - 403

EP - 408

JO - Clinical Genetics

JF - Clinical Genetics

SN - 0009-9163

IS - 3

ER -